Syllabus
Human Physiology Lab

Human Physiology Lab

BIOL-2102

Fall 2010
08/23/2010 - 12/12/2010

Course Information

Section 010
Laboratory
T 9:10AM - 11:50AM
RVSA 2219
Sarah Strong
sstrong@austincc.edu
(512) 223.6260

Office Hours

  • M W
    11:00 am - 1:00 pm
    RVSA 2297 or RVSA 2233
    August 23 through December 9
  • M W
    9:00 am - 11:00 am
    RVSA 2297
    October 18 through December 9
  • Th
    9:00 am - 10:00 am
    RVSA 2297 or RVSA 2233
    August 23 through December 9
  • Th
    10:00 am - 12:00 pm
    RVSA 2297
    September 20 through December 9

general information

The information here is incomplete.  Please refer to the course syllabus at www.austincc.edu/sstrong/phys

Course Requirements

General Instructions for Lab

1)  Before class (in order):

a.  print the lab from Blackboard and read it

b.  complete the prelab included in the lab (many require PhysioEx)(you will lose points if you turn in prelabs after the lab begins)

c.  answer questions in the lab report that don’t depend on data gathered during lab

2)  During class:

            a.  turn in prelab at beginning of lab

            b.  work with your lab group to complete the lab activity

            c.  complete and submit the lab report

3)  After class

            a.  the graded lab report will be returned on the next class day

            b.  there will be a quiz over each lab the following week (see class schedule)

Readings

PhysioEx for Human Physiology: Laboratory Simulations in Physiology CD and manual by Stabler, Smith, Peterson and Lokuta.                      

 

date

lab *

8/24

Time management and study skills

8/31

Lab 1 - LabScribe, Graphing, Dimensional Analysis (no pre-lab)Safety Training

9/7

Lab 1 Quiz

Lab 2 - Passive Transport%

Safety Test

9/14

Lab 2 Quiz

Lab 3 - Active Transport %

9/21

Lab 4 – Sensory

9/23

Lab 3 Quiz

9/28

Lab 4 Quiz

Lab 5 - Skeletal Muscle Physiology %

10/5

Lab 5 Quiz

Lab 6 -  Cardiac Cycle %

10/12

Lab 6 Quiz

Lab 7 - EKG and Blood Pressure %

Safety Training

10/19

Lab 8 - Hematology %

10/21

Lab 7 Quiz

10/26

Lab 8 Quiz

Lab 9 - Respiratory Volumes %

11/2

Lab 9 Quiz

Lab 10 - Urinalysis and Renal Function %

11/9

Lab 10 Quiz

Lab 11 - Fluid and pH Balance %

11/16

Ch. 16 continued

11/18

Lab 11 Quiz

11/23

PhysioEx Digestive Enzymes

11/30

Lab 12 - Blood Glucose Control %

12/7

no lab

Course Subjects

 

date

lab *

8/24

Time management and study skills

Chapter 1 - Homeostasis

8/31

Lab 1 - LabScribe, Graphing, Dimensional

                                 Analysis (no pre-lab)

Safety Training

9/7

Lab 1 Quiz

Lab 2 - Passive Transport%

Safety Test

9/14

Lab 2 Quiz

Lab 3 - Active Transport %

9/21

Lab 4 – Sensory

9/23

Lab 3 Quiz

9/28

Lab 4 Quiz

Lab 5 - Skeletal Muscle Physiology %

10/5

Lab 5 Quiz

Lab 6 -  Cardiac Cycle %

10/12

Lab 6 Quiz

Lab 7 - EKG and Blood Pressure %

Safety Training

10/19

Lab 8 - Hematology %

10/21

Lab 7 Quiz

10/26

Lab 8 Quiz

Lab 9 - Respiratory Volumes %

11/2

Lab 9 Quiz

Lab 10 - Urinalysis and Renal Function %

11/9

Lab 10 Quiz

Lab 11 - Fluid and pH Balance %

11/16

Ch. 16 continued

11/18

Lab 11 Quiz

11/23

PhysioEx Digestive Enzymes

11/30

Lab 12 - Blood Glucose Control %

12/7

no lab

Student Learning Outcomes/Learning Objectives

 

BIOL 2305/BIOL 2102 Human Physiology - Draft Common Course Objectives

to take effect in Fall 2004

 

Course Description:  A detailed study of the physiological processes of the human body.  Corequisite enrollment in laboratory course (BIOL 2102) also required.  Prerequisites:  High school chemistry with proof of competency through ACC departmental exam and BIOL 2304/BIOL 2101 with minimum grade of C (or equivalent with lab).

 

Goals:

 

  • to define a core body of knowledge and skills for that will be covered completely in all sections of the course, while allowing instructors some flexibility in the addition of material beyond the core objectives
  • to meet the needs of the Austin Community College Allied Health Sciences programs
  • to meet the needs of students transferring to other institutions
  • to provide a varied and comprehensive laboratory experience including participatory, hands-on experiences that reinforce and expand on concepts covered in lecture
  • to encourage critical thinking, the understanding of scientific methodology, and the application of scientific principles
  • to promote understanding of physiological processes through laboratory exercises that use living tissue
  • to provide a description of course content for new faculty
  • to accommodate differences in student learning styles

 

 

Assumptions:

 

  • Studentswho take BIOL 2305/BIOL 2102(Human Physiology)must have completed BIOL 2304/BIOL 2101 with a minimum grade of C and passed the departmental biology and chemistry assessment exams.  Students who cannot provide documentation of completion of BIOL 2304/BIOL 2101 will be administratively withdrawn from the course.  Equivalent courses will be defined as human anatomy courses with a lecture and a laboratory component.
  • Students enrolled in BIOL 2305/BIOL 2102 possess a common base of knowledge from prerequisite courses (high school chemistry and biology and BIOL 2304/BIOL 2101 or equivalent) as represented by their common course objectives.  Students who did not complete BIOL 2304/BIOL 2101 at ACC should be informed of the location of the appropriate common course objectives on the departmental web site and told that we assume they already have this knowledge base.
  • Material covered in the prerequisite courses as defined by their common course objectives are not included in BIOL 2305/BIOL 2102 Common Course Objectives.
  • The material covered in the BIOL 2305/BIOL 2102 Common Course Objectives is arranged by topic and follows the order of topics in the course textbook: Human Physiology by Sherwood.  This is done for convenience and does not mean that covering the topics in this order is required.
  • The BIOL 2305/BIOL 2102 Common Course Objectives will be provided to the ACC Health Sciences Division and will define their expectations of the knowledge and skills of students entering their programs.
  • Instructors will be able to add a certain amount of material beyond the core objectives.

 

 

Skills and competencies expected of students completing this course successfully:

  • ability to explain physiological processes in detail and on an appropriate level (knowledge, comprehension, application and analysis)
  • ability to observe phenomena and to record and analyze data including basic statistics and their meaning
  • ability to carry out analytical procedures
  • ability to infer from data
  • ability to demonstrate higher level critical thinking skills
  • ability to solve problems
  • ability to construct graphs from data
  • ability to obtain information from graphs
  • ability to manipulate equipment
  • ability to work effectively in a group
  • ability to work safely in a lab setting
  • ability to follow directions
  • computer literacy
  • self-directed learning

 

 

Unifying concepts

  • homeostasis
  • emergent properties/levels of organization 
  • integration

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Course Objectives

 

Homeostasis

 

assumptions concerning students’ existing knowledge:

  • students have a thorough understanding of human anatomy at the gross and microscopic level and are familiar with all organ systems and their general functions

 

1.  Define homeostasis and explain why it is referred to as a “dynamic steady state”.   State several conditions that must be maintained by homeostatic mechanisms.

 

2.  Define “internal environment”; explain the relationship between the cells and the extracellular fluid (ECF).

 

3.  Diagram a general homeostatic control system.  Describe the function of each component of a general homeostatic control system and explain how they work together.

 

4.  Define feedback; explain what would happen if no feedback occurs.  Explain the difference between negative and positive feedback in terms of their effect on the output from the system and on deviation from the set point.   Give several examples of conditions that are controlled by negative or positive feedback mechanisms

 

5.  Discuss the homeostatic regulation of one body function.

 

6.  Explain how problems in homeostatic mechanisms can lead to disease states.  Give specific examples.

 

 

 

Cell Functions (membrane transport, intercellular communication/signal transduction, membrane potentials, enzymes)

 

assumptions concerning students’ existing knowledge:

  • students have a basic understanding of membrane structure and membrane transport processes (including simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, solute pumps, and vesicular transport), concentration gradients, and the factors that influence diffusion rate

 

1.  Review the structure of the plasma membrane and the functions of each membrane component.

 

 

 

2.  Describe signal transduction mechanisms used in intercellular communication:

a.  structure and location of receptors

b.  function of receptors in signal transduction

c.  cell response to interaction between chemical messengers and receptors

 

3.  Describe in detail the second messenger mechanism using at least one specific example.

 

4.  Permeability of membranes:

a.  explain the difference between permeable, impermeable, and selectively permeable membranes

b.  discuss the factors that affect the permeability of a biological membrane, including the presence of channels and carrier proteins, and the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer

 

5.  Discuss the factors that determine the permeation (penetration) of a molecule, including size, polarity and electrical charge.

 

6.  Diffusion:

a.  define diffusion and explain the relationship between kinetic energy, the random movement of molecules, and diffusion

b.  explain the concept of a concentration gradient

c.  define osmosis

d.  define osmolarity and explain how osmolarity affects osmosis

e.  define osmotic pressure and explain how it affects osmosis

d.  define dialysis

 

7.  Define tonicity and describe its relationship to osmotic pressure.  Describe isotonic, hypotonic and hypertonic solutions.  Discuss the effect of these solutions on cells that are exposed to them.  Explain the difference between osmolarity and tonicity.

 

8.  Describe the general mechanism of carrier-mediated transport and the types of molecules that require carriers to move across the plasma membrane.

9.  Describe the characteristics of carrier-mediated transport .

 

10.  Define facilitated diffusion (carrier-mediated diffusion) and describe how it differs

            from simple diffusion.

 

11.  Describe active transport and the conditions that require its use.  Compare active transport and facilitated diffusion.  Describe in detail the function of the Na+-K+ pump.  Describe secondary active transport and compare it to primary active transport.  Compare the source of energy for moving molecules in facilitated diffusion, primary active transport and secondary active transport.

 

12.  Describe the processes used in vesicular transport including endocytosis (phagocytosis, pinocytosis, and receptor-mediated endocytosis) and exocytosis.

 

13.  Membrane potentials:

a.  define membrane potential, voltage and current

b.  explain how the resting membrane potential is maintained

c.  describe the functions of membrane potentials in nerve and muscle cells

 

14.  Enzymes:

a.  define enzyme, substrate, and active site

b.  list the characteristics of enzymes

c.  describe how enzymes work

d.  discuss the functions of cofactors and coenzymes

e.  discuss the effect of denaturation on enzyme activity

 

 

 

Neuronal Physiology

 

assumptions concerning students’ existing knowledge:

  • students have a thorough understanding of the structure and diversity of neurons
  • students have a basic understanding of synaptic structure
  • students have a thorough understanding of the mechanisms that establish and maintain the resting membrane potential

 

1.  Describe the general use of membrane potentials as intra- and intercellular signals in nerve and muscle cells.

 

2.  Define and describe:

a.  polarization

b.  depolarization

c.  repolarization

d.  hyperpolarization

 

2.  Compare the mechanisms, functions and characteristics of graded and action potentials.

 

4.  Diagram a typical action potential and label its phases on your diagram.

 

5.  Describe the ionic mechanisms responsible for depolarization, repolarization and hyperpolarization in an action potential.  Describe the specific conformations of the ion channels during these events and the triggers that open or close them.

 

6.  Explain the timing of events that causes each phase of an action potential      (opening and closing of ion channels, ion fluxes).

 

7.  Define threshold for an action potential, explain what happens at the threshold, and how the combination of electrical charge and time determine whether or not the threshold is reached.

 

8.  Describe the effects of stimulus intensity and duration on nerve impulse conduction.

 

9.  Define, differentiate and explain the function of the absolute and relative refractory periods.

 

10.  Describe and compare action potential propagation in unmyelinated and myelinated fibers. 

 

11.  Discuss the factors affecting conduction velocity in a neuron.

 

12.  Describe the function of a chemical synapse.  Explain the difference between excitatory and inhibitory synapses. 

 

13.  Describe the major categories and general functions of neurotransmitters.

 

14.  Describe how neurotransmitters are released, the mechanisms by which they can act on the postsynaptic membrane, and their inactivation or removal.

 

15.  Define post synaptic potential.  Define and compare EPSPs and IPSPs.  Explain how EPSPs and IPSPs can interact and explain the significance of spatial summation, temporal summation, and integration (GPSP).

 

16.  Explain the structure and function, and diagram each type of neural circuit:

            a.  diverging

            b.  converging

 

 

 

Central Nervous System

 

assumptions concerning students’ existing knowledge:

  • students have a thorough understanding of the anatomy of the central nervous system, glial cells, and meninges
  • students have a thorough understanding of the structural and functional organization of the nervous system (CNS, PNS, motor, sensory, somatic, visceral/autonomic)

 

1.  Describe the functions of the glial cells.

 

2.  Describe the formation, circulation, functions, and reabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid.

 

3.  Describe the structure and functions of the blood-brain barrier.

4.  Describe the general overall functions of the:

            a.  cerebral cortex

            b.  cerebral nuclei (basal nuclei)

            c.  thalamus

            d.  hypothalamus

            e.  midbrain

            f.   pons

            g.  medulla oblongata

            h.  cerebellum

 

5.  Describe the functions of individual functional regions of the cerebral cortex.  Describe spatial representation and explain its significance in sensory and motor areas.  Explain how these functional regions are integrated.

 

6.  Describe the limbic system, its functions, and its interactions with the cerebral cortex, especially those that modify emotional behavior.

 

7.  Describe the basic neural mechanisms underlying learning and memory.

 

8.  Describe the role of the cerebellum in voluntary muscle activity.

 

9.  Describe the location, structure of and functions of the reticular formation.

 

10.  Describe the physiological mechanisms associated with sleep and other stages of consciousness.

 

11.  Define reflex.  Differentiate reflexes based on effector type (somatic vs autonomic).  Describe the pathways and functions of simple spinal reflexes (example:  stretch reflex, withdrawal or flexor reflex).  Explain reciprocal innervation and its role in somatic reflexes. 

 

 

 

Sensory Physiology

 

assumptions concerning students’ existing knowledge:

  • students have a thorough knowledge of the structure, types and distribution of cutaneous and proprioceptors
  •  students have a thorough knowledge of the gross and anatomical structure of the special sense organs and their afferent neural pathways

 

1.  Classify sensory receptors according to the type of stimulus to which they respond.

 

2.  Discuss the mechanisms involved in receptor and generator potentials and how they may result in the formation of action potentials.

 

3.  Explain how information concerning the intensity of the stimulus is conveyed to the CNS via the frequency of afferent signals and the number of receptors activated.

 

4.  Differentiate tonic and phasic receptors. Define adaptation and explain its function.

 

5.  Describe a typical general somatic afferent pathway for sensation (labeled line).  Explain how it allows the CNS to localize sensory input to specific body regions.  Compare afferent pathways that do and do not terminate in the cerebral cortex.

 

6.  Explain how the size of receptive field, convergence in the afferent pathway and lateral inhibition affect acuity and sensitivity.

 

7.  Define and describe the processes involved in vision:

            a.  refraction

            b.  accommodation

            c.  phototransduction

 

8.  Compare and contrast the roles of rods and cones in producing a visual          image.

 

9.  Describe the afferent pathway for vision.

 

10.  Describe how sound waves are collected and amplified by the outer, middle and inner ear structures.

 

11.  Explain how transduction of sound waves occurs in the Organ of Corti, including how the ear transmits information about the intensity and pitch of sounds to the brain.

 

12.  Describe the afferent pathway for hearing.

 

13.  Describe the role of these organs in the sense of equilibrium:

            a.  semicircular canals

            b.  otolith organs

 

14.  Briefly describe the afferent pathway for equilibrium.      

 

15.  For the sense of taste:

            a.  describe the location and type of receptors

            b.  explain how transduction occurs at the receptors

            c.  describe the afferent pathway

 

16.  For the sense of smell:

            a.  describe the location and type of receptors

            b.  explain how transduction occurs at the receptors

            c.  describe the afferent pathway

Efferent Motor Division

 

assumptions concerning students’ existing knowledge:

  • students have a thorough knowledge of the structure of the neuromuscular junction and a basic knowledge of the structure of autonomic motor junctions
  • students have a thorough knowledge of the structure of the ANS including the structure and innervation of the adrenal medulla

 

1.  Describe the ANS neurotransmitters and their receptors in terms of anatomical distribution and function.

 

2.  Describe the overall functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic ANS divisions and specific effects on selected organs.

 

3.  Explain dual innervation and its function.

 

4.  Describe  specific instances of tonic activity in the ANS (example:  effect of parasympathetic suppression of intrinsic SA node depolarization rate).

 

5.  Describe the role of the adrenal medulla in the sympathetic response.

 

6.  Explain how the brain is involved in regulating and coordinating ANS activity.

 

7.  Compare the autonomic and somatic efferent pathways.

 

8.  Describe integration of input from multiple sources by the motor neuron.

 

9.  Describe the structure and function of the neuromuscular junction, including the

            structure of the motor end plate, the release, action and destruction of

            acetylcholine (ACh), the end plate potential and the function of the transverse

            tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR).

 

 

 

Muscle Physiology

 

assumptions concerning students’ existing knowledge:

  • students have a thorough understanding of skeletal muscle at the organ, tissue, cellular and molecular levels

 

1.  Explain the sliding-filament mechanism of muscle contraction (cross bridge cycle) and how it is controlled.

 

2.  Explain the role of ICF Ca in skeletal muscle contraction, the control of its release and re-sequestration (excitation-contraction coupling).

3.  Describe the events that must happen at the neuromuscular junction and in the skeletal muscle cell for relaxation to occur.

 

4.  Describe the contractile response to a single action potential (a muscle twitch).  Diagram this response and label its phases.  Correlate events that occur during excitation-contraction coupling and the cross-bridge cycle to the phases of this response.

 

5.  Describe the organization of skeletal muscles into motor units. 

 

6.  Explain the physiological mechanisms that lead to summation (recruitment, twitch or wave summation and tetanus) in skeletal muscle.

 

7.  Discuss the factors that affect:

            a.  the length-tension relationship in a skeletal muscle

            b.  the velocity of shortening

 

8.  Discuss the energy sources used by skeletal muscles.  Correlate energy production with muscle fatigue and oxygen debt.

 

9.  Compare the three types of skeletal muscle fibers with respect to structure, energy source, and fatigue.

 

10.  Describe nervous system control of skeletal muscle.

 

11.  Diagram, describe and compare the stretch and deep tendon reflexes.

 

12.  Compare excitation-contraction coupling and shortening in cardiac and smooth muscle to skeletal muscle.

 

 

 

Cardiac Physiology

 

assumptions concerning students’ existing knowledge:

  • students have a thorough knowledge of the gross and microscopic anatomy of the heart including the conduction system and valves

 

1.  Explain the ionic mechanisms underlying the cardiac pacemaker potential and the functions of the pacemaker potential in coordinating contraction in the myocardium.

 

2.  Discuss variation in the intrinsic rates of autorhythmic cells in the heart and their potential role when the SA node is not working. 

 

3.  Explain the ionic basis for the cardiac contractile cell action potential, including the purpose of the plateau phase.

 

4.  Describe a typical EKG recording and the events that cause its individual components.  Draw and label a typical EKG.

 

5.  Describe the cardiac cycle.  In particular,

            a.  describe the events of each phase of the cardiac cycle, including valve

                        positions and pressure gradients

            b.  locate atrial systole, ventricular systole and diastole on a typical EKG tracing

            c.  explain what causes the two major heart sounds

 

6.  For cardiac output,

            a.  define cardiac output, stroke volume and heart rate

            b.  explain the relationship between cardiac output, stroke volume and heart rate

            c.  explain briefly how CO can be manipulated to meet the needs of the body

            d.  explain what happens when COR ¹ COL

            e.  explain the factors that affect or regulate stroke volume

            f.   explain the factors that affect heart rate

 

 

 

Vascular Physiology

 

assumptions concerning students’ existing knowledge:

  • students have a thorough understanding of the structure of elastic and muscular arteries, arterioles, capillaries and veins
  • students have a thorough understanding of the major circulatory patterns of the body (systemic and pulmonary)

 

1.  Explain the relationship between flow, pressure and resistance in blood vessels, and the factors that affect the amount of resistance.  Specifically:

            a.  Define:

                        1)  flow (F or Q)

                        2)  blood pressure (P or BP)

                        3)  resistance (R or PR)

            b.  State the general mathematical relationship between flow, blood pressure and

                        resistance.

            c.  Using the formula for flow, explain how the body increases and decreases blood flow.

 

2.  For each type of blood vessel:

            a.  state its general function

            b.  state whether blood flow is pulsatile or steady

            c.  state the range of pressures (in mm Hg) normally found in that type of vessel

 

3.  Explain the function of elastic arteries as pressure reservoirs.

 

4.  Describe the measurement of systemic arterial pressure.  Define and differentiate systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure (MAP).   Given systolic and diastolic pressures, calculate pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure.

 

5.  List the sources of resistance in blood vessels.  Rank these factors in order of  their normal impact on resistance and explain your reasoning.

 

6.  Discuss factors affecting tissue perfusion.  Explain why perfusion is not always the same for each part of the body.  Explain the role of autoregulation and extrinsic regulation in controlling perfusion.

 

7.  Describe the physical features of the capillary that facilitate movement of materials between blood and tissue fluid (structure of capillary wall, intercellular clefts, fenestrations, high total cross sectional area, low velocity).

 

8.  Explain the regulation of capillary beds and their bypass mechanism.

 

9.  Describe the mechanisms by which materials move between blood and tissue fluid at the capillaries (diffusion and bulk flow). 

 

10.  For bulk flow:

            a.  define:

                        1)  capillary hydrostatic pressure 

                        2)  capillary osmotic pressure

                        3)  interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure

                        4)  interstitial fluid osmotic pressure

                        5)  net filtration pressure

            b.  explain capillary fluid dynamics for the arterial end of a capillary

            c.  explain why there is a difference in NFP between the arterial and venous

                        ends of a capillary and why it does not lead to constant edema

            d.  explain the effects of these imbalances on the NFP:

                        1)  changes in capillary hydrostatic pressure

                        2)  changes in capillary osmotic pressure

                        3)  changes in interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure

                        4)  changes in interstitial fluid osmotic pressure

 

11.  Describe the role of the lymphatic system in maintaining normal tissue fluid volume.

 

12.  Define venous return and describe the factors that affect it.

 

13.  State the relationship between MAP, CO and PR.  Explain how CO and PR are altered to maintain an appropriate MAP.

 

14.  Explain and differentiate the general purpose of short-term and long-term control of MAP.  List and explain the mechanisms involved in each form of control.

 

 

 

 

Blood

 

assumptions concerning students’ existing knowledge:

  • students will have a thorough knowledge of the structure and production of erythrocytes, the 5 groups of leukocytes, and thrombocytes

 

1.  Describe the general functions, volume and composition of whole blood. 

 

2.  Define hematocrit and describe the average ranges of percent volume of whole blood occupied by plasma, red blood cells, and white blood cells and platelets for males and for females.

 

3.  Describe the composition of plasma.  Specifically describe the plasma proteins by percent composition, major groups, and functions.

 

4.  State the normal red blood cell count.

 

5.  Explain the relationship between erythrocyte structure and function.

 

6.  Describe the structure and functions of hemoglobin.

 

7.  Describe the processes by which erythrocytes are produced and recycled.  Explain why constant erythropoiesis is necessary.  Describe the control of erythropoiesis.

 

8.  Describe the causes and consequences of anemia and polycythemia.

 

9.  For leukocytes, discuss:

            a.  major functions of each type

            b.  normal range for total WBC count

            c.  normal ranges for differential WBC count

            d.  leukopoiesis

            e.  disorders – leukopenia, leukocytosis, leukemia

 

10.  For thrombocytes, discuss:

            a.  function

            b.  normal range for thrombocytes

            c.  thrombopoiesis

 

 

 

11.  Describe the processes involved in hemostasis:

a.  vascular spasm

b.  platelet aggregation

c.  coagulation, including the difference between the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms, clot retraction, clot dissolution, and factors that prevent inappropriate clotting

 

12.  Describe the causes and consequences of :

            a.  hemophilia

            b.  thrombosis

 

 

 

Immune System

 

assumptions concerning students’ existing knowledge:

  • students are familiar with the location, structure,  and basic function of lymphoid tissues

 

1.  Describe the functions of the immune system.

 

2.  Describe the effector cells of the immune system.

 

3.  Compare the general characteristics of the innate and adaptive immune mechanisms.

 

4.  Describe the main events of inflammation and the symptoms associated with it.

 

5.  Describe the functions of

            a.  interferon

            b.  natural killer cells

            c.  the complement system

 

6.  Describe the roles, origin, maturation and migration of B and T lymphocytes.

 

7.  Describe the antibody-mediated (humoral) response including the production, structure, classes and functions of antibodies.

 

8.  Compare the primary and secondary (anamnestic) response

 

9.  Describe the acquisition and long term consequences of active and passive immunity.

 

 

 

10.  Describe the cellular basis for the presence of the ABO and Rh blood types in humans. Include the location of antigens A, B and Rh and the plasma antibodies associated with each type. Explain the difference between preformed (anti-A and anti-B) and anti-Rh antibodies.

 

11.  Describe the cell-mediated response.

 

12.  Explain how the immune system develops tolerance.

 

13.  Describe the genetic basis for class I and class II self antigens (MHC molecules) and their role in the immune response.

 

14.  Describe the causes and consequences of disorders related to the immune system:

a.  Define immunodeficiency; explain the different types and what causes them.

b.  Define hypersensitivity. Explain the difference between delayed and immediate hypersensitivity responses and the cells that mediate them.  Define anaphylactic shock and the physiological problems it causes.

c.  Define autoimmune disorder and explain the proposed causes.

d.  Describe the causes of immune complex diseases

 

 

 

Respiratory Physiology

 

assumptions concerning students’ existing knowledge:

  • students have a thorough knowledge of the gross and microscopic anatomy of the respiratory system including the structure of the respiratory membrane

 

1.  State the major functions of the respiratory system and briefly describe the processes that are used to accomplish this function.

 

2.  Respiratory mechanics:

a.  Differentiate ventilation, inspiration and expiration.

b.  Differentiate intrapleural pressure and intra-alveolar (intrapulmonary) pressure.

c.  Explain how the transmural pressure gradient and intrapleural fluid cohesiveness contribute to ventilation.

d.   State Boyle’s Law and use it to predict changes in pressure when the volume of a gas changes.

f.  List and explain the processes involved in inspiration and expiration

g.  compare passive and forced expiration

 

3.  Explain the relationship between air flow, pressure, and resistance.

 

4.  Define pulmonary compliance; describe the relationship between compliance, pulmonary surface tension and surfactant.

5.  Explain how elastic tissue in the lungs contributes to ventilation

 

6.  For each volume, state the definition, abbreviation and formula (if any):  Be able to work problems to calculate these volumes.

a.  tidal volume

b.  inspiratory reserve volume

c.  expiratory reserve volume

d.  vital capacity

e.  residual volume

f.   anatomic dead space

g.  pulmonary ventilation

h.  alveolar ventilation

 

7.  Explain what ventilation-perfusion matching means and how it occurs.

 

8.  Oxygen diffusion and transport:

  1. define partial pressure and explain how to determine the partial pressure for atmospheric gases.
  2. state the partial pressures of oxygen and C02 in the alveoli, systemic arterial blood, systemic venous blood, pulmonary arterial blood, pulmonary venous blood and tissue fluid
  3. describe diffusion of oxygen between the alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood and the factors that affect it
  4. describe transport of oxygen by the blood
  5. describe the diffusion of oxygen between the systemic capillary blood and tissue fluid.
  6. describe the information that can be obtained from an oxygen-Hb dissociation curve.
  7. discuss factors that affect oxygen-Hb dissociation including the Bohr effect.
  8. discuss factors that impair oxygen transport

 

9.  Carbon dioxide diffusion and transport

  1. describe the diffusion of carbon dioxide between the systemic capillary blood and tissue fluid and the factors that affect it
  2. describe transport of carbon dioxide by the blood
  3. describe the diffusion of carbon dioxide between the alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood
  4. describe the chloride shift

 

10.  Discuss the control of respiration by the nervous system, including the roles of the

a.  central pattern generator (pre-Bötzinger complex), medullary and pontine respiratory centers

b.  chemical reflexes

c.  stretch reflex (Hering-Breuer)

 

 

Renal Physiology

 

assumptions concerning students’ existing knowledge:

  • students will have a thorough knowledge of the gross and microscopic structure of the kidneys including the components of the renal tubule, the glomerular, peritubular and vasa recta capillaries, and the juxtaglomerular apparatus

 

1.  List and explain the functions of the kidney.

 

2.  Explain briefly how the kidneys use the processes of glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion to accomplish their functions of regulating body water, ion, waste, and acid levels.

 

3.  Glomerular filtration:

a.  describe the filtration membrane and explain how it affects the composition of the filtrate

b.  describe the forces driving filtration and explain how they affect the net filtration pressure (NFP)

c.  define glomerular filtration rate, state its normal values, and explain how it is affected by the NFP, filtration membrane surface area and permeability

d.  Discuss the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms used to regulate GFR

 

4.  Tubular reabsorption:

a.  describe how much filtrate is normally reabsorbed

b.  explain how these materials are reabsorbed in the nephron:

1)  sodium

2)  glucose
3)  amino acids
4)  Cl
5)  H2O

c.  define transport maximum and explain the Tm for glucose

d.  list some of the molecules that are not reabsorbed or not reabsorbed completely after they are filtered.  Explain why they are not reabsorbed and describe their fate.

e.  explain how reabsorption differs in the proximal and distal tubules.

f.  explain the relationship between the tubular maximum, the filtered load, and the amount of a substance that is secreted

 

5.  Explain the role of aldosterone and atrial natriuretic peptide in controlling Na reabsorption

 

6.  Define tubular secretion, list common materials that are secreted.  Describe the control of K secretion by aldosterone.

 

7.  Explain the following relationship:   Excretion = Filtration + Secretion – Reabsorption

8.  Plasma clearance:

a.  Define plasma clearance and explain what it is used for.

b.  Write out the formula for plasma clearance including units.

c.  Explain how the clearance of a substance can be used to determine whether or not the substance was secreted or reabsorbed.

d.  calculate plasma clearance given appropriate data.

 

9.  Describe the process that results in the formation and maintenance of the medullary osmotic gradient.

 

10.  Explain the role of ADH (vasopressin) in controlling ECF osmolarity and its effect on urine volume and concentration.

 

11.  Describe the process of micturition.

 

 

 

Fluid, Ion, and pH Balance

 

assumptions concerning students’ existing knowledge:

  • students will have a thorough understanding of factors that cause movement across the cell membrane and across the capillary wall
  • students will have a thorough understanding of pH including the pH scale and  the dissociation of strong and weak acids and bases

 

1.   Describe body water content in terms of volume.

 

2.  Describe the distribution of body water in compartments and the selectively permeable membranes that separate the compartments.  Describe differences in ion distribution among these compartments.

 

3.  Discuss the forces that control the movement of fluid between the major compartments.  Describe conditions under which fluid would shift between compartments.

 

4.  Explain why the body needs a stable fluid volume, and describe the mechanisms used to maintain it.

 

5.  Explain why the body needs a stable fluid osmolarity, and describe the mechanisms used to maintain it.

 

6.  Explain the cause and effects of these disorders:

  1. dehydration
  2. hypotonic hydration
  3. edema

 

7.  Identify and explain the three mechanisms the body uses to maintain pH balance.

 

8.  Buffer systems:  

a.  Explain the difference between a strong and a weak acid or base.

b.  Define buffer system

c.  Explain the composition of each buffer system.

d.  Explain how the bicarbonate buffer system buffers

1)  excess acid

2)  excess base

 

9.  Explain how the respiratory system helps to regulate pH.

 

10.  Explain how the renal system helps to regulate pH.

 

11.  Acid/base disorders:

a.  Define acidosis and alkalosis.

b.  For each acid/base imbalance, describe the

1)  main diagnostic feature in terms of CO2 or HCO3 increase or decrease
2)  causes
3)  compensation

 

 

 

Digestive Physiology

 

assumptions concerning students’ existing knowledge:

  • students have a thorough knowledge of the gross and microscopic anatomy of the digestive system

 

1.  Describe the basic digestive processes:  motility, secretion, digestion, absorption.

 

2.  Describe the general mechanisms by which digestive processes are regulated: 

  1. autonomous smooth muscle pacesetter cells
  2. intrinsic nerve plexuses and sensory receptors (enteric nerve network)
  3. extrinsic nervous control (ANS)
  4. GI hormones

 

3.  For the mouth, pharynx and esophagus, describe

a.  main functions of each

b.  the composition of saliva

c.  the mechanisms involved in and controlling salivation and swallowing

 

 

 

 

 

4.  For the stomach, describe

a.  its main functions

b.  the composition of stomach juice

c.  absorption

d.  the neural and hormonal control of stomach secretion, mixing, propulsion and emptying

 

5.  Describe the composition and functions of pancreatic secretions and the control of their release.

 

6.  Describe the composition of bile.  Discuss the secretion, storage, digestive function, and recycling or excretion of bile components.

 

7.For the small intestine,

a.  discuss its main functions

b.  describe the composition and control of secretion of intestinal juice

c.  describe mechanical digestion and propulsion

 

8.  Describe the complete digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, proteins and fats.

 

9.  Describe the absorption of ions, vitamins and water.

 

10.  For the large intestine, describe

a.  its main functions

b.  motility

c.  defecation

 

 

Energy Balance and Temperature Regulation

 

assumptions concerning students’ existing knowledge:

  • students have a basic knowledge of cellular respiration

             

This topic is covered in detail in BIO 1704 and to some degree in the muscle chapter.  The course objectives were reduced to cover physiological aspects not covered in Introduction to Microbiology.  At your discretion, feel free to include more information.

 

1.  Describe the use of energy for metabolic functions.

 

2.  Metabolic rate:

  1. define basal metabolic rate
  2. describe the conditions under which it is measured and methods of measuring it.
  3. list factors that influence the basal metabolic rate.

 

3.  Describe the process by which body temperature is maintained and regulated.

Endocrine Physiology - Central Endocrine Glands

 

assumptions concerning students’ existing knowledge:

  • students have a thorough knowledge of the second messenger mechanism
  • students have a thorough knowledge of the anatomical relationship between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland
  • students have a thorough knowledge of bone growth

 

1.  Define hormone and explain the relationship between a hormone and its target cells, including target cell specificity.

 

2.  Describe the chemical classification of hormones and the relationship between chemical class and synthesis, storage, transport and mechanism of action at the target cell.

 

3.  Explain amplification of hormonal effect at the target cell.

 

4.  Describe and compare the mechanisms that control hormone secretion.

 

5.  Describe factors that affect the plasma concentration of a hormone.

 

6.  Discuss the various causes for endocrine disorders.

 

7.  Describe how the number of receptors in target cells can be altered.

 

8.  Describe the secretion of melatonin by the pineal gland and the function of the biological clock in controlling circadian rhythms.

 

9.  Describe the role of the hypothalamus in the synthesis and secretion of posterior pituitary hormones.

 

10.  Describe the functions of the posterior pituitary hormones.

 

11.  Describe the role of the hypothalamus in controlling the release of anterior pituitary hormones.

 

12.  Describe the secretion and function of prolactin.

 

13.  Describe the endocrine control of growth, focusing on the effects of growth hormone and the control of its secretion.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Endocrine Physiology - Peripheral Endocrine Glands

 

assumptions concerning students’ existing knowledge:

  • students have a thorough knowledge of the gross and histological structure of the thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal gland, and pancreatic islets

 

1.  For all of the following hormones, discuss the

a.  chemical classification

b.  general mechanism of action

c.  control of secretion

d.  target cells and specific actions

  1. thyroid hormone (T3 and T4)
  2. glucocorticoids (cortisol)
  3. mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)
  4. gonadocorticoids
  5. catecholamines
  6. glucagon
  7. insulin
  8. calcitonin
  9. parathyroid hormone
  10.   vitamin D

 

2.  Regulation of fuel metabolism:

  1. differentiate the absorptive and postabsorptive states
  2. compare energy sources during the absorptive and postabsorptive states
  3. describe the role of insulin in controlling metabolism during the absorptive state including the specific metabolic reactions involving carbohydrates, lipids and proteins
  4. describe the role of glucagon in controlling metabolism during the post-absorptive state including the specific metabolic reactions involving carbohydrates, lipids and proteins

 

3.  Discuss the role of parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and vitamin D in the regulation of blood calcium levels.

 

4.  For each endocrine disorder listed below, identify the hormone involved and the basis for the disorder (hyposecretion, hypersecretion or receptor problems). 

a.  type I (IDDM or insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus

b.  type II (NIDDM or non-insulin dependent) diabetes mellitus

c.  hypothyroidism

d.  hyperthyroidism

 

 

 

 

 

Reproductive Physiology

 

assumptions concerning students’ existing knowledge:

  • students have a thorough knowledge of the gross and microscopic anatomy of the gonads
  • students have a basic knowledge of the location and gross and microscopic anatomy of the accessory sex organs

 

1.  Describe fetal sex determination and differentiation.

 

2.  Define spermatogenesis and describe the:

a. timing of onset of spermatogenesis

b. site of spermatogenesis

c. stem cells and role of mitosis in spermatogenesis

d. sequence of events that occur during spermatogenesis including the role of meiosis

e. spermiogenesis and the structure of a mature sperm

f. roles of the sustentacular (Sertoli) cells

 

3.  Hormonal regulation of male reproductive functions:

a.  Describe the source, regulation of release and actions of

1)  GnRH

2)  FSH
3)  LH
4)  inhibin
5)  testosterone

b.  Describe the specific actions of testosterone

1)  during fetal development

2)  at puberty

3)  after puberty

 

4.  Describe initiation,  control of, and physiological events of the male sex reflexes:

a.  erection

b.  ejaculation

 

5.  Define oogenesis and describe the sequence of events that occur

a. in the fetus

b. at puberty

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.  Hormonal regulation of female reproductive functions:

a.  describe the source, regulation of release and actions of

1)  GnRH

2)  FSH
3)  LH
4)  estrogens
5)  progestins

6)  inhibin

b.  describe the specific actions of estrogens

c.  describe the specific actions of progesterone

 

7.  For the ovarian cycle, describe:

a. the events of the follicular phase

b. the factors that cause ovulation

c. the events of the luteal phase

 

8.  For the uterine cycle:

a. describe changes that occur in the endometrium during each phase

b. describe hormonal control of the uterine cycle

c.  correlate events in the uterine cycle to the ovarian cycle

 

9.  Describe the initiation and control of the female sex reflexes.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lab Activities (refer also to “Skills and Competencies” on page 2):

 

assumptions concerning students’ existing knowledge and skills:

  • students have basic laboratory skills including the use of microscopes, spectrophotometers and micropipetters
  • students have basic computer skills including word processing and the use of spreadsheets

 

Lab exercises will:

  • be participatory, hands-on experiences for all students
  • reinforce and expand physiological topics covered in lecture
  • encourage critical thinking and the application of scientific principles
  • promote understanding of physiological processes through laboratory exercises that use living tissue
  • use live animals such as amphibians and invertebrates in the muscle, cardiac and nerve labs
  • computers will be used for data collection and analysis or true simulations rather than running software that merely demonstrates physiological activities without the ability to manipulate variables and collect data.

 

note:  The anatomy and physiology subcommittee decided to create a basic core of 10 labs that would be done in all sections, and a set of supplemental labs that instructors could choose from for their remaining labs.  No decision has been made yet about which labs should be core and which can be supplemental.  Suggested lab topics appear below.

 

Lab Safety

Quantitative (with metric and measurements)

Scientific method

Quantitative Analysis (Organic Molecules)

pH and Buffers

Membrane Transport

Muscle Physiology

Human reflexes

Sensory Physiology

Hematology

Cardiac Cycle

EKG

Blood Pressure

Respiratory Physiology

Urinalysis

Fluid Balance

Nerve Physiology

Endocrine Physiology

Metabolism

Cellular enzyme systems