Syllabus
Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

BIOL-2404

Fall 2010
08/23/2010 - 12/12/2010

Course Information

Section 007
Lecture
Sa 9:10AM - 11:50AM
CYP5 2206
Samuel (Sam C) Clifford
scliffor@austincc.edu
(512) 223.1790 x26674

Section 007
Laboratory
Sa 12:30PM - 3:10PM
CYP5 2208
Samuel (Sam C) Clifford
scliffor@austincc.edu
(512) 223.1790 x26674

Section 016
Lecture
TTh 5:40PM - 7:05PM
RRC3 3330.00
Samuel (Sam C) Clifford
scliffor@austincc.edu
(512) 223.1790 x26674

Section 016
Laboratory
TTh 7:05PM - 8:25PM
RRC3 3325.00
Samuel (Sam C) Clifford
scliffor@austincc.edu
(512) 223.1790 x26674

Office Hours

No office hours have been entered for this term.

Course Requirements

Syllabus

Biol 2404—Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

Fall 2010

 

Instructor Information:

Dr. Sam Clifford

Office:  SAC1 1313.5

Phone Number:  512 417-8679

E-mail:  scliffor@austincc.edu

Web: webassign.net

Blackboard:  http://acconline.austincc.edu

 

Office Hours:

Office Hours:  TTh or S half hour before classand by appointment

See me after lecture or lab, call me, or send me an e-mail to schedule time to meet with me outside of my office hours.

 

Course Information:

Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

 

Course Description:

This course is an introduction to the structure and function of the human body with an emphasis on anatomy. It is designed for students in the ACC health science programs who need a single semester of anatomy and physiology.

 

Prerequisites:

There are two types of prerequisites for ACC courses: skill prerequisites (reading, writing and math competency) and course prerequisites. This course does not have any course prerequisites, but it does have skill prerequisites “G.”  This means your reading, writing and math skill levels must be at ACC placement skill level 5 or above or you must have passed a state-approved assessment test (TASP or COMPASS) in all of these areas or you must be exempt from assessment through transcript hours from another college or you must have appropriate ACT, SAT, TAKS, or TASS scores. For more details see http://www.austincc.edu/support/assessment/assessmenteligibility.php.

 

You do not have to bring proof of your skill levels—they are provided to the instructor during the first week of classes. If you do not have the prerequisites you will have to withdraw from the class. If you do not withdraw, the instructor will do it for you and you will lose your tuition for the course.

 

Instructional Methodology:

The course includes both a lecture and a lab. The lab emphasizes detailed dissections of preserved materials, study of human models, and examination of tissues. The majority of the labs are self-directed. The labs provide a hands-on learning environment.

 


Textbooks and Supplies:

Required:

1. Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, 3rd or 4th ed, 2007, by Martini and Bartholomew, Pearson/Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co.. You can substitute another comparable human anatomy and physiology text, but show me the substitute so that I can verify it is suitable for our class.

2. A Photographic Atlas for the Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory, 5th edition, 2003,by Kent M. Van De Graff and John L. Crawley, Morton Publishing Co. You can substitute another comparable human anatomy photographic atlas.

3. A Visual Analogy Guide to Human Anatomy, 2005, by Paul Krieger, Morton Publishing Co.

4. Safety glasses/goggles with Z87.1 rating

5. Closed-toe shoes

 

 

Optional:

1. Anatomy & Physiology Revealed CD-ROM set (1-4) by Medical College of Ohio, McGraw-Hill Co.

2. Anatomy Coloring Workbook, 2nd edition by Princeton Review (or other human anatomy coloring book).

3. Super Review of Anatomy & Physiology , 2000 or latest, Research & Education Association, Inc. (or other anatomy and physiology review book).

 

Course Rationale:

Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology prepares students requiring a one-semester anatomy & physiology course and those applying to one of the following ACC Allied Health Science programs:


·   DMI–Radiology

·   EMS Professions

·   Medical Coding

·   Medical Laboratory Technology

·   Nursing (LVN)

·   Occupational Therapy Asst/OTA

·   Personal Fitness Trainer (Certificate)

·   Surgical Technology (Certificate/AAS)


 

Specific skills and competencies are expected of students who successfully complete this course, including the ability to:

·         identify anatomical features of the body, including cells, tissues, organs and organs systems on models, preserved tissues, microscopic samples and charts

·         explain very basic physiological processes on an appropriate level (knowledge, comprehension, application)

·         demonstrate higher level critical thinking skills

·         work effectively in a group and safely in a lab setting

·         follow directions

·         engage in self-directed learning

 

Common Course Objectives:

An outline and a list of specific learning objectives will be provided for each lecture topic.  A list of specific learning objectives will be provided for each lab.  You will need to go to Blackboard  (http://acconline.austincc.edu) to print the handouts before class. You are responsible for and will be tested on all of these objectives, whether or not the objective is covered in lecture or lab.  A similar list of objectives (but more general) can be found at http://www.austincc.edu/biology (click on the “Common Course Objectives” link).


GRADES:

Lecture Exams:

The Lecture Exam dates are indicated on the Lecture/Lab Schedule.

 

You will have 4 lecture exams. The first 4 exams are worth 100 pts.  The exams are designed to assess your understanding of the basic principles of human anatomy and physiology. The questions may include: multiple choice, matching, identification, short-answer (essay), fill-in-the-blank,  T and F, diagrams, and problem solving. I will specify during lecture which objectives will be covered on each exam. I will try to grade and return exams to you within one week. Please supply scantrons  for each exam.

 

Lab Practical Exams:

The Lab Practical Exam dates are indicated on the Lecture/Lab Schedule.

 

You will have 4 lab practical exams throughout the semester. Each lab exam is worth 50 pts. The exams include identification of parts of models, specimens, and slides. The lab objectives are listed on each lab handout. I will specify during lab which objectives will be covered on each exam. I will set up the lab practical during the first part of our lab period. You will take the lab practical during the remaining time of the lab period.

 

Homework Assignments:

 

Homework will be taken from webassign.net.  Homework will serve as the source of T and F questions for the lecture tests.  Lecture tests will include short essay questions and labeling.

 

Webassign will automatically keep track of your homework grade.  If you end the semester with a 90% grade, you will receive 20 extra points to your grade point total.   If you have a grade below 90%, extra points will be reduced by one point for each 5% decrement.

 

You should set up an account at Webassign.net.  Instructions will be provided via email or in class.  The cost for Webassign ranges from 10 – 15 dollars per semester.

 

Spelling:

Spelling must be correct on all lecture exams, lab practical exams, and assignments. I will deduct 1 pt for every 3 misspelled words on each of these exams or assignments.

 

Curves and Extra Credit:

There will be NO curve on any of the exams, etc. during the semester.  There will be NO curve on any of the final course grades. Extra credit assignments are homework given  through Webassign.net.

 

Makeup Exams:

You must contact me as soon as possible if you must miss a lecture exam.  Only one makeup lecture exam will be given to any student during the semester. Please note carefully:  All makeup exams will taken immediately after you take the FINAL lecture exam (Lecture Exam #5 on Tuesday, August 14th).

 

There are NO makeup lab practical exams.  If you miss a lab practical exam, your grade on it will be a zero.

 

Retests:

There are no retest exams. Once you take an exam, you may not take it again to try for a better grade.

 


Lab Cleanup:

Please clean up and store all materials before leaving the lab. For each lab period that you do not clean up before leaving lab, you will lose 3 points from your final total points. This is what I expect:

1. Put away all slides, microscopes, models, books, charts, and specimens. Put the models back together before putting them away.

2. When putting away microscopes:

a. Put the lowest power objective in place and lower the nosepiece.

b. Remove any microscope slide.

c. Turn off the microscope before unplugging the cord.

d. Use the Velcro strap to wrap the electrical cord.

e. Return the microscope to the proper location in the cabinet.

3. Discard dissected tissues and preservative fluid in the designated containers, not in the sink or regular trashcan.

4. Wash, dry, and put away dissecting instruments.

5. Wash dissecting trays and pans and leave to dry on the drying rack.

6. Use the spray provided in lab to clean your lab table and all counters used.

7. Wash your hands before leaving lab.

 

Tracking Your Grades:

Due to ACC policies concerning the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), I cannot post grades or call or e-mail you with information about your grades.

 

Grades will be posted on Blackboard (you will only be able to see your own grades, not those of your classmates). You can also keep track of your grades in the space below.

 

Lecture Exams:                                        ~66% of final course grade

Lab Exams:                                               ~33% of final course grade

 

Lecture Exams

 

 

Lab Practical Exams

 

1._________ (100 pts)

 

1. _________ (50 pts)

2. _________ (100 pts)

 

2. _________ (50 pts)

3. _________ (100 pts)

 

3. _________ (50 pts)

4. _________ (100 pts)

 

4. _________ (50 pts)

 

 

 

 

Total Lecture Exams (Maximum of 400 pts)                         _______

Total Lab Practical Exams (Maximum of 200 pts)                _______

 

GRAND TOTAL (Maximum of 600 pts)                                _______

 

Divide your grand total by 600 pts then multiply by 100 to get your percentage grade. 

A = 90–100% (540-600 pts)

B = 80–89% (480-539 pts)

C = 70–79% (420-479 pts)

D = 60–69% (360-419 pts)

F = 0–59% (0-359 pts)

 

Attendance:

You are responsible for attending all lectures and lab.  Most students do better on the exams if they attend regularly. You are responsible for all materials, activities, assignments, or announcements covered in class, regardless of your reason for being absent.  If you do miss a class, it is your responsibility to get lecture notes from someone in the class and to get handouts and assignments from me. Lecture and lab attendance will be informally monitored.  If your percent grade is within 0.5 percentage points of a letter grade, your final letter grade will be determined by your attendance AND participation in lecture and lab.

 

Expectations:

  • Spend a MINIMUM of 2 hours outside of class for every hour spent in class (12 hours of study time outside of class per week).  Most students need to spend MUCH MORE time to obtain a grade higher than a C.  Short study periods every day are much more effective than one long study session.

 

  • Be prepared for each lecture. The course schedule indicates the lecture reading assignments. Read the Summary Outline found at the end of each chapter BEFORE coming to class. Also, scan all figures and read the figure captions BEFORE coming to class.

 

  • Read the textbook after each lecture. You should read the sections in the textbook that were covered in lecture and answer the pertinent Review Questions at the end of each chapter as soon as possible AFTER each lecture.

 

  • Be prepared for each lab. You are expected to read through the entire lab handout BEFORE coming to lab. This will help you to pace yourself to complete the objectives in the time allotted and help you to better understand the terms and concepts covered in the lab BEFORE coming to lab. Use textbook and photographic atlas diagrams to identify structures. Some students even highlight these structures before lab so that they can find them quickly during lab.

 

  • Review after each lab. You should review the structures using the Websites and Study Guide materials on Blackboard.

 

  • Actively participate in all class and lab activities, including dissections. 

 

  • Come see me if you need help.  You can also try a tutor at the Learning Lab or form a study group (3 people per group is the maximum recommended).

 

  • Clean up and store materials before leaving lab. See specifics below.

 

Withdrawal Policy:

The instructor has the right, but not the responsibility, to drop a student from the course for excessive absences. The student is responsible for monitoring their progress in the course and determining if they need to withdraw. I can help the student make that decision, but the final decision is the student’s decision.

 

You can withdraw by filling out the appropriate form and submitting it to the ACC Admissions and Records office on any campus before the stated deadline. You do not need my signature on this form. Check to determine the last day for withdrawal.  If you stop attending class and do not withdraw yourself from the course, you will end up with a grade of F for the semester.

 

You should be aware that students are charged a higher tuition rate for courses they repeat for the third or more time. The “third attempt” course tuition rate applies to majority of credit and Continuing Education courses, counting each time a student has taken a course since Fall 2002. “Third attempt” tuition does not apply to developmental education courses and other select courses, including special topics courses.
 

In order to be reinstated in the class after having been withdrawn, the student must have been enrolled in the course on the state reporting date, as demonstrated by the twelfth-day class roll, must have been withdrawn from the course in error, must show evidence of being capable of passing the course within the time remaining in the semester, and the instructor must have documentation that the student is eligible to be reinstated in the course.

 

Incomplete Grades:

Incomplete grades are rarely given in this class and will be given entirely at my discretion. A grade of incomplete (I) will be assigned only if:

·   You have a valid reason and I agree to give you an incomplete grade.

·   You request a grade of I in writing, with written documentation.

·   You have completed at least 60% of the course work.

·   You have at least a C (70%) average on completed work.

·   The reason for your request has occurred after the official drop deadline for the course.

·   You provide all documentation and sign the required form prior to the last day of class.

 

Be aware that incompletes that are not finished convert to F grades automatically, regardless of your grade average when you request the incomplete.

 

Support Services:

The lab room (SAC 1309) is available for student use during certain hours of the week. The lab rooms at other campuses are also open during the week and on weekends. Usually an instructor is available to tutor students in the open labs. I will post  the Science Study lab hours on Blackboard as soon as they are determined.

 

In addition, the Riverside Campus has an extra room (The RVS Study Lab) that contains microscopes, slides, models and other lab-related study items. Computers and software are available for student use, including several excellent CD ROMs. Students can also view videos in the study lab. The person who staffs the study lab is not a tutor, so don’t count on her or him to help you with course objectives.

 

Finally, most semesters an anatomy & physiology tutor is available in the Learning Lab at this campus and others. For Learning Lab hours and more information about tutoring services, go to http://www2.austincc.edu/tutor/index.php. I will also post the Learning Lab hours on Blackboard as soon as they are determined.

 

Bad Weather:

If classes are cancelled because of bad weather, ACC notifies instructors and students on the ACC homepage (http://www.austincc.edu) and on local radio and television stations. I find it easiest and fastest to look at the ACC homepage.

 


Webassigm:

I will post all grades, lecture outlines, lecture objectives, lab handouts, and assignments on Webassign.net. Please check this site on a daily basis for announcements and all needed materials. You can also use Webassign to communicate with your fellow classmates (use the Discussion Board button) , find Websites with animations and practice questions, and to print practice diagrams.

 

Cell Phones and Pagers:

Please turn off cell phones and pagers during class as a courtesy to me and other students.

 

Scholastic Dishonesty:

“Acts prohibited by the college for which discipline may be administered include scholastic dishonesty, including but not limited to, cheating on an exam or quiz, plagiarizing, and unauthorized collaboration with another in preparing outside work. Academic work submitted by students shall be a result of their thought, research of self-expression.  Academic work is defined as, but not limited to, tests, quizzes, whether taken electronically or on paper; projects, either individual or group; classroom presentations; and homework.”
 
To avoid any problems that may arise from misunderstandings, you should follow these procedures during lecture exams and lab practical exams:
·   Turn off and store all cell phones.
·   Store all personal belongings under your desk.
·   Close all books and notebooks and make sure there are no loose papers visible.
·   Keep your eyes on your own papers.
·   Remove your hat while taking the exam.
·   Do not talk during exams and practicals.
·   If you expect to need tissues or medications, get them out before the exam and leave them on your desk.
·   Keep your exam answer sheet covered so it is not visible to other students.
·   Do not leave the room until you have finished the exam. 
 
Students with Disabilities: 

"Each ACC campus offers support services for students with documented physical or psychological disabilities.  Students with disabilities must request reasonable accommodations through the Office of Students with Disabilities on the campus where they expect to take the majority of their classes.  Students are encouraged to do this three weeks before the start of the semester.”

 

Students who are requesting accommodation must provide the instructor with a letter of accommodation from the Office of Students with Disabilities (OSD) at the beginning of the semester.  Accommodations can only be made after the instructor receives the letter of accommodation from OSD.

 

Academic Freedom:
"Institutions of higher education are conducted for the common good.  The common good depends upon a search for truth and upon free expression.  In this course the professor and students shall strive to protect free inquiry and the open exchange of facts, ideas, and opinions.  Students are free to take exception to views offered in this course and to reserve judgment about debatable issues. Grades will not be affected by personal views.  With this freedom comes the responsibility of civility and a respect for a diversity of ideas and opinions.  This means that students must take turns speaking, listen to others speak without interruption, and refrain from name-calling or other personal attacks."

 
Lab Safety Policy:
"Health and safety are paramount values in science classrooms, laboratories and field activities. Students are expected to learn, understand, and comply with environmental, health and safety (EHS) procedures and protocols, and must agree to abide by the ACC science safety policy.  Students are expected to conduct themselves with appropriate professional behavior and with respect and courtesy to all.  Anyone who thoughtlessly or intentionally jeopardizes the health or safety of another individual will be immediately dismissed from the day’s activity, may be withdrawn from the class, and/or barred from attending all activities. Specific safety information for each activity will be discussed at the beginning of the activity.  For those activities that require specific safety training, a student who is late and misses the safety training will not be able to participate in the activity. You are covered by a student accident insurance policy if you have an accident during lab that was caused by the lab activity.  Your instructor will provide you with the necessary forms. The comprehensive science safety policy can be found at: http://www.austincc.edu/sci_safe/.”

 

Any labs involving chemicals require the use of safety glasses or goggles and closed-toe shoes. You must have these safety items to attend the lab. Otherwise, you will have to leave the lab and you will not earn any points for the lab.

 

Official Biology Department Policy Concerning Student Use of Organisms in the Classroom and Laboratory:

Most ACC biology classes, particularly those with laboratory components, use actual organisms during instruction in addition to images and models. ACC students generally are preparing for real-world careers requiring workers with hands-on experience. These careers include health care, veterinary work, horticultural and agricultural work. Other students plan to transfer to four-year colleges and will be participating in biological research where hands-on experience is equally important.

 

Organisms used at ACC are fundamental in biology instruction and they are utilized to teach specific skills and knowledge. Their condition and usage varies from course to course. Students will be expected to actively participate in these activities. Students with particular concerns in this matter should consult with their instructor and/or departmental officials before enrolling in a laboratory course so that they can know what will be required of them.

 

Some organisms are observed alive while others are dead and preserved in various ways. Student manipulation of organisms ranges from culturing living organisms to dissecting preserved ones. Some examples include, but are not limited to: bacterial culturing for microbiology courses; cat, pig or rat dissection for anatomy courses; skeleton and pelt examination for field biology; and use of frogs in physiology experiments.

 

Other Student Services:

Information about other services for students, such as financial aid, counseling and grade reports, can be found at:

·         Student Services web site:  http://www.austincc.edu/resources_students/services.php

·         The ACC student handbook:  http://www.austincc.edu/handbook/useful.htm

 

Instructional Services:

Information about instructional services (e.g. libraries) located at this campus can be found at:  http://library.austincc.edu/

 

Student Insurance:

Students enrolled in lab and field courses are covered by student insurance if they are injured as a result of the lab or field activity. If you are injured, I will give you a student insurance form to take with you to the medical facility where you will be treated. There is  $25 deductible.

 

Testing Center Policy

ACC Testing Center policies can be found at:  http://www.austincc.edu/testctr/

 

Other Student Services:

Information about other services for students, such as financial aid, counseling and grade reports, can be found at:

·         Student Services web site:  http://www.austincc.edu/resources_students/services.php

·         The ACC student handbook:  http://www.austincc.edu/handbook/useful.htm

 

Instructional Services:

Information about instructional services (e.g. libraries) located at this campus can be found at:  http://library.austincc.edu/

 

ACC Policy Concerning Copyrighted Materials

All class materials provided on the instructor's web page, Blackboard, CD, and/or in printed form (labs, objectives, assignments, etc.) are copyrighted and may not be reproduced without the written consent of the copyright holder (this may be the instructor, ACC, or a publisher).  Reproduction consists of photocopying, scanning and copying files, or posting on a server or web site.  Students currently registered for this section have permission to print one copy of course materials for their own personal use.  No permission is given for posting any course materials on web sites.

 
 

Tips for Success in Biology 2404-Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

 

1. COME TO CLASS!

There is no substitute for being present in lecture and taking your own set of notes and coming to lab and carrying out the experiments and studying the structures with your own hands!

 

2. GET A STUDY PARTNER. 

Meet with your partner several times a week (including the first week).  Don't wait until the week before the first exam. Find a non-distracting place to study.  If you find you are not using your time with your study partner effectively and efficiently, change study partners (partner, please don't take it personally!).

 

3. HAVE A COMPLETE SET OF USEABLE LECTURE NOTES. 

·         Use loose-leaf paper and a notebook binder with so you can add or remove and recopy pages, add illustrations, handouts etc.

·         Leave an extra wide 2-3" margin on the left side of the page. Use this space to later add vocabulary and concept terms or to clarify your notes.

·         Look at any figures discussed during class or lab carefully. Most are in your textbook.

·         Review your lecture notes soon after each lecture. Add information from your text, as needed, to clarify information. Get questions answered as soon as possible. After the second lecture, review the first and second lecture. After the third, review the first, second and third, etc. Do this first alone and then with your study partner.

 

4. READ YOUR TEXTBOOK.

The text we are using is a comprehensive text on anatomy and physiology. We will not cover a lot of the material in it.

·         Get familiar with your text. It has several features like the glossary and tables of prefixes and suffixes which you will find very useful.

·         Read the Summary Outline found at the end of each chapter BEFORE coming to class.

·         Scan all art and photos and read the figure captions in each BEFORE coming to class.

·         Read the sections covered in lecture and answer the Review Questions at the end of each chapter as soon as possible AFTER each lecture.

·         Do not use your text as a substitute for attending lecture or studying your lecture notes.

 

5. STUDY ACTIVELY.

Anatomy & Physiology has a lot of new vocabulary and unfamiliar terms. Key ideas build on each other. It is not the type of class where you can learn it all the night before the exam. "Reading over" and "highlighting" lecture notes or the text is a passive exercise. Here are some useful and active study techniques.

·         After you have studied your notes use the outlines I have given you to write out all you can remember about each topic without looking at your notes.  Study when you are most alert.

·         Make your own diagrams or tables to simplify, organize, or clarify information.

·         Make note cards with vocabulary/ keywords on one side and the explanation/ definitions on the other side. Carry them with you to use in any moment of spare time.

·         Explain vocabulary and concepts to a study partner without referring to your notes. When you can teach the material to your classmate without looking at your notes, you know the material well enough for the exam.

·         If you like to draw/color, use the coloring A&P atlases found in most bookstores.

 

6. GO OVER YOUR EXAMS AND GET HELP IMMEDIATELY.

Go over your exam as soon as it is returned to you. For each question you missed, you need to know what the correct answer is and why you missed the question.  Did you read it wrong? Did you not understand a term that was used?  Remember, the final exam is comprehensive so you will be tested again on the material.

 

7. TAKE ADVANTAGE OF RESOURCES THAT ARE AVAILABLE.

·         Come see me as needed.

·         Share phone numbers with your classmates. Have someone you can call for help.

·         Use the Learning Lab! Drop in and get your questions answered. Use the models or the computer. Use software that helps you to review materials or lets you practice test questions.

·         Many internet sites have practice quiz questions for each chapter.

·         If you finish the lab a little early, instead of leaving, use the time to review previous materials. Quiz each other on the material covered in previous labs.

 

8. HAVE FUN.

Readings

Syllabus

Biol 2404—Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

Fall 2010

 

Instructor Information:

Dr. Sam Clifford

Office:  SAC1 1313.5

Phone Number:  512 417-8679

E-mail:  scliffor@austincc.edu

Web: webassign.net

Blackboard:  http://acconline.austincc.edu

 

Office Hours:

Office Hours:  TTh or S half hour before classand by appointment

See me after lecture or lab, call me, or send me an e-mail to schedule time to meet with me outside of my office hours.

 

Course Information:

Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

 

Course Description:

This course is an introduction to the structure and function of the human body with an emphasis on anatomy. It is designed for students in the ACC health science programs who need a single semester of anatomy and physiology.

 

Prerequisites:

There are two types of prerequisites for ACC courses: skill prerequisites (reading, writing and math competency) and course prerequisites. This course does not have any course prerequisites, but it does have skill prerequisites “G.”  This means your reading, writing and math skill levels must be at ACC placement skill level 5 or above or you must have passed a state-approved assessment test (TASP or COMPASS) in all of these areas or you must be exempt from assessment through transcript hours from another college or you must have appropriate ACT, SAT, TAKS, or TASS scores. For more details see http://www.austincc.edu/support/assessment/assessmenteligibility.php.

 

You do not have to bring proof of your skill levels—they are provided to the instructor during the first week of classes. If you do not have the prerequisites you will have to withdraw from the class. If you do not withdraw, the instructor will do it for you and you will lose your tuition for the course.

 

Instructional Methodology:

The course includes both a lecture and a lab. The lab emphasizes detailed dissections of preserved materials, study of human models, and examination of tissues. The majority of the labs are self-directed. The labs provide a hands-on learning environment.

 


Textbooks and Supplies:

Required:

1. Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, 3rd or 4th ed, 2007, by Martini and Bartholomew, Pearson/Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co.. You can substitute another comparable human anatomy and physiology text, but show me the substitute so that I can verify it is suitable for our class.

2. A Photographic Atlas for the Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory, 5th edition, 2003,by Kent M. Van De Graff and John L. Crawley, Morton Publishing Co. You can substitute another comparable human anatomy photographic atlas.

3. A Visual Analogy Guide to Human Anatomy, 2005, by Paul Krieger, Morton Publishing Co.

4. Safety glasses/goggles with Z87.1 rating

5. Closed-toe shoes

 

 

Optional:

1. Anatomy & Physiology Revealed CD-ROM set (1-4) by Medical College of Ohio, McGraw-Hill Co.

2. Anatomy Coloring Workbook, 2nd edition by Princeton Review (or other human anatomy coloring book).

3. Super Review of Anatomy & Physiology , 2000 or latest, Research & Education Association, Inc. (or other anatomy and physiology review book).

Student Learning Outcomes/Learning Objectives

BIOLOGY 2404

INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY

COMMON COURSE OBJECTIVES

 

1.  The common course objectives for BIOL 2404 were developed by the following

committee:

 

            Bernice Speer, Committee Chair

            Les Albin

            Meg Flemming

            Anne Keddy-Hector

            Audrey L. Mackey

            Sarah Strong

            Steve Ziser   

 

Input into the common course objectives was provided by:

            Rebecca Brock

            Richard Espinoza

            Paige Fletcher

Raja (?)         

 

 

2.  The objectives were written in consideration of these goals:

 

·        to define a core body of knowledge for BIOL 2404  Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology that will be covered completely in all sections of the course

 

·        to provide a description of course content for new faculty

 

·        to use only the core body of knowledge for constructing an assessment final, if the department decides to use one for BIOL 2404

 

·        to emphasize that the course content for BIOL 2404 is approximately 60-70% anatomy and 30-40% physiology

 

·        to allow instructors some flexibility in the addition of material beyond the core objectives. 

 

·        to meet the needs of the ACC Allied Health Sciences programs that require BIOL 2404

 

·        to meet the needs of ACC students taking BIOL 2404

 

·        to accommodate differences in student learning styles

 

 

3.  The common course objectives are divided by topic. 

 

            a.  This is done for the convenience of most instructors but does not mean that

the topics need to be covered in this order.   The order of the topics is not

linked to any particular textbook.

 

            b.  Within each major topic the objectives are subdivided into “lecture topics” and

“lab topics”.   You will find that some subjects are listed in both sections,

and some in only one.  In some cases you may decide to move a topic

from lecture to lab, to move it from lab to lecture, or to cover it in both.  If a

topic is listed in both sections you are not required to cover it in both

lecture and lab if in your judgement it is best done another way. 

 

c.   Some of the ACC Health Science programs have requested more coverage

of certain physiology topics.  These topics will be marked with an *. 

 

Within the “lecture topics” lists, some items require more thorough coverage, and others only a brief overview.  These suggestions are made to help instructors manage the material so that everything can be covered in one semester.   Please remember this is an introductory course.  If students need more thorough coverage of these topics, they should take Human Anatomy and Human Physiology.

 

4.  All campuses will adopt whole animal dissection in lab, specifically to illustrate the individual variations between organisms and to demonstrate certain concepts that cannot be adequately seen on models (such as mesenteries and fascia between adjacent muscles). 

                       

            Dissection is a skill required in subsequent classes and programs.  In order to

            adequately prepare our students, students will do the dissections.  At their

            discretion, instructors may provide additional dissections as demonstrations. 

            The official Biology Department policy concerning student use of organisms in

            the classroom and laboratory can be found at:

                        http://www.austincc.edu/biology/organismspolicy.html

 

            The following is a list of structures that students should identify on a dissected animal.   The items on this list also appear along with the related lab topics below and are included here for easy reference.

 

            List of structures that students will locate through the dissection of a whole

animal (cat, fetal pig, rat):

thoracic cavity

abdominopelvic cavity

parietal pericardium

visceral pericardium

parietal pleura

visceral pleura

parietal peritoneum

visceral peritoneum

           

heart

aorta:  arch. abdominal

common carotid artery

anterior and posterior vena cava

 

thymus

spleen

 

larynx

trachea

lungs

diaphragm

           

esophagus

stomach

small intestine

large intestine

greater omentum

pancreas

mesentery

liver

gall bladder if present in species dissected

 

kidney

ureter

urinary bladder

 

ovaries

testes

 

5.  Since the particular inventory of prepared microscope slides and models may differ from campus to campus, instructors should provide additional guidance concerning which models to use and which slides to use for identifying histological structures (example:  whole mount vs. cross section of simple squamous epithelium)


Introduction to the Human Body

 

Lecture topics

 

Define, compare and contrast anatomy and physiology

Hierarchy of organization and relationship between levels: atoms, molecules, cells, tissues, organs, organ system, organism

Summary of organ systems and their major functions

Homeostasis

Anatomical position

Planes of section
Directional terms
Body planes and sections

Body cavities and their subdivisions and membranes; major organs found in each


Lab topics

Describe anatomical position

 

Define and be able to use the terms of body orientation and position:

superior/inferior

anterior/posterior

medial/lateral

dorsal/ventral

proximal/distal

superficial/deep

 

Define and be able to use the terms of body surface anatomy:

oral                             

orbital

cervical

thoracic                     

axillary

brachial

antecubital                

abdominal

inguinal                      

femoral

patellar

popliteal

occipital

lumbar                       

gluteal

calcaneal

 

 

Define and be able to identify the body planes and sections:

sagittal                       

frontal             

transverse

 

Define, be able to identify and name the organs in the body cavities:

dorsal

cranial

spinal

ventral

thoracic

abdominopelvic

abdominal

pelvic             

 

Define and be able to identify the serous membranes of the body cavities:

pericardium (visceral and parietal)

pleura (visceral and parietal)

peritoneum (visceral and parietal)

 

Identify the body cavities on a torso model or diagram

 

Identify these structures through dissection of a whole animal (cat, fetal pig, rat):

thoracic cavity

abdominopelvic cavity

parietal pericardium

visceral pericardium

parietal pleura

visceral pleura

parietal peritoneum

visceral peritoneum

 

 

Basic Chemistry

 

Lecture topics

 

Define and give examples of: atoms, molecules, ions, electrolytes

Common chemical symbols:  O, C, H, N, Ca, K, Na, Cl
Inorganic substances: water, salt, acids and bases

pH
The four types of biomolecules, their functions, monomers and polymers

Enzymes: basic function

 

Lab topics

Simple lab demonstrating pH and buffers

Cells

 

Lecture topics

 

Overview of general cell structures (nucleus, cytosol, organelles, membrane) and their basic functions

Discussion of structure and function of plasma membrane

Membrane transport:  diffusion, osmosis (including tonicity), facilitated diffusion, active transport (primary and secondary), vesicular transport

Resting membrane potential

 

 

Lab topics

 

Identify the parts of a compound light microscope

 

Demonstrate correct care and usage of microscopes and slides

 

Using models or diagrams, identify these cell components:

plasma membrane

cytosol

nucleus

nuclear envelope

mitochondrion

ribosome

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

rough endoplasmic reticulum

Golgi apparatus

 

Identify these cell components on microscope slides (such as thyroid or blood)

            plasma membrane

            cytosol

            nucleus

 

Simple lab demonstrating diffusion and osmosis

 

 

Tissues

 

Lecture topics

Tissue: definition
Extracellular matrix and interstitial fluid: description and functions
Four basic tissue types: general descriptions, functions

 

 

 

Skin and Body Membranes

 

Lecture topics
Functions of the integumentary system
Structure of the skin
Accessory structures of the skin: structures and functions
Classifications of membranes

Normal skin pigmentation

 

Lab topics

Identify these structures on a skin model or diagram:

epidermis:  stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum

dermis:  papillary layer, reticular layer

hypodermis

sebaceous glands

sudoriferous glands:  apocrine and eccrine

hair

hair follicle

blood vessels

arrector pili

           

 

Identify the locations of these types of membranes on models or diagrams:

mucous                                  

synovial

serous

 

 

 

Skeletal System

 

Lecture topics
Functions of the skeletal system

Classification of bones
Structure of a typical long bone

Types of bone cells and their functions

Overview of bone growth and remodeling  (minimal coverage)
Organization of skeletal system:  axial and appendicular
Joints: Structural and functional classification
Structure of a typical synovial joint
Types of synovial joints
Terms for descriptions of movements

 

Lab topics

Identify these structures on a histology model of compact bone tissue:

         osteon

         central canal

         lamellae

         osteocytes in lacunae

 

Identify these parts of a typical long bone:

diaphysis

epiphysis

periosteum

articular surface

medullary cavity

endosteum

compact bone

spongy bone

 

Identify these bones and markings of the skull:

frontal bone

parietal bone

temporal bone:  external auditory meatus, mastoid process

occipital bone:  foramen magnum, occipital condyles

sphenoid bone:  sella turcica

ethmoid bone:  crista galli, cribriform plate, perpendicular plate

sutures:  sagittal, coronal, squamous, lambdoidal

mandible

maxilla

palatine bone

zygomatic bone

lacrimal bone

nasal bone

vomer

paranasal sinuses:  frontal, maxillary, ethmoid, sphenoid

hyoid bone

 

locate and be able to identify these bones and markings of the vertebral column:

individual vertebra:  body, vertebral foramen, processes, intervertebral foramen

specific vertebrae:  cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, coccyx

atlas

axis:  dens/odontoid process

 

locate and be able to identify these bones and markings of the bony thorax:

sternum:  manubrium, body or gladiolus, xiphoid process

ribs:  vertebrosternal, vertebrochondral, vertebral (floating)

 

locate and be able to identify these bones and markings of the shoulder girdle:

clavicle

scapula:  acromion process, coracoid process, glenoid cavity (fossa); spine

 

locate and be able to identify these bones and markings of the arm:

humerus:  head

radius

ulna

carpals

metacarpals

phalanges

 

locate and be able to identify these bones and markings of the pelvic girdle:

os coxa/coxal bone/innominate bone:  acetabulum, obturator foramen, true pelvis, false pelvis

 

locate and be able to identify these bones and markings of the leg:

femur:  head, neck

tibia:  tibial tuberosity

fibula

patella

tarsals

metatarsals

phalanges

 

Identify these parts of a knee joint on models or diagrams:

articular capsule

medial and lateral menisci

anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments

tibial and fibular collateral ligaments

patellar ligament

articular cartilages

tendon of quadriceps femoris

 

Muscular System

 

Lecture topics
Functions of the muscular system

Types of muscle tissue (skeletal, cardiac, smooth)

Microscopic anatomy of skeletal muscle fiber: myofibril, sarcomere, actin, myosin, thick and thin filaments

Neuromuscular Junction

Overview of sliding filament mechanism – role of thick and thin filaments but not regulatory proteins

Gross anatomy of skeletal muscle:  insertion, origin, attachments

Interactions of skeletal muscles

Lab topics

 

Identify these parts of a skeletal muscle:

tendon

fibrous connective tissue coverings

 

 

Identify these parts on the muscle cell model or diagram:

sarcolemma

motor end plate

myofibril

sarcomere

 

Identify these human muscles on models or diagrams:

orbicularis oculi                    

orbicularis oris                      

sternocleidomastoid            

trapezius                               

deltoid                                               

latissimus dorsi                    

pectoralis major                   

biceps brachii                       

triceps brachii                       

diaphragm                                        

external intercostals             

internal intercostals              

external oblique                    

internal oblique                     

transversus abdominis        

rectus abdominis                 

gluteus medius                     

gluteus maximus                  

semitendinosus                    

semimembranosus              

vastus lateralis                      

vastus medialis                    

vastus  intermedius              

rectus femoris                       

biceps femoris                                 

gastrocnemius                      

 

 


Nervous System                            

 

Lecture topics

Functions of the nervous system
Organization of the nervous system
Nerve tissue and nerve cell types
Structure of a typical neuron

Structure of a chemical synapse

Neurotransmitters*

Postsynaptic receptors*

Gated channels*

Neurophysiology:  action potentials*

Brain: Gross anatomy, structure and functions of major brain regions

Spinal cord: Gross anatomy, general structure and function

Overview of protection of CNS: meninges and CSF

Types of nerves: sensory and mixed
Structure of a typical nerve

Cranial nerves: name, number, and brief functions

Spinal nerves: organized by region of spinal cord, dorsal root, ventral root

Overview of spinal nerve plexuses
Motor output:  somatic vs. autonomic structures – structure, effectors, control

Divisions of ANS:  Compare and contrast the structure and functions of the sympathetic

and parasympathetic nervous systems *

Effect of each division of ANS on major organs


Sensory input: Sensory structures, classification by function, structure, and stimulus

Structure and function of the organs of the special senses

Anatomy of the eye, including structure and brief functions

Overview of function of rods, cones, cornea and lens

Afferent pathway of vision

Anatomy and function of the ear

Overview of mechanism of hearing (minimal coverage)

Overview of mechanisms of equilibrium (minimal coverage)

Overview of olfaction and taste – location and stimuli

 

Lab topics

 

Identify these structures on neuron models or diagrams:

axon

Schwann cell

myelin sheath

dendrite

synaptic knob/axon terminal

cell body

 

Identify these structures on brain models or diagrams:

cerebral hemisphere

longitudinal fissure

olfactory bulbs

olfactory tracts

optic nerves

optic chiasma

optic tracts

pituitary gland

pons

midbrain

corpora quadrigemina

medulla oblongata

cerebellum

corpus callosum

thalamus

hypothalamus

pineal body

lateral ventricles

third ventricle

fourth ventricle

cerebral aqueduct

interventricular foramen

 

Locate and identify these structures through dissection of a sheep brain:

cerebrum

cerebral hemispheres

cerebellum

medulla oblongata

spinal cord

olfactory bulbs

optic nerve

optic chiasma

optic tracts

pons

pineal body

corpora quadrigemina

corpus callosum

thalamus

hypothalamus

third ventricle

fourth ventricle

 

 

           

 

Identify these structures on spinal cord models or diagrams:

gray horns:  anterior, lateral, posterior

white columns:  anterior, lateral, posterior

dorsal root

dorsal root ganglion

ventral root

spinal nerve

meninges:  dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater

epidural space filled with fat

central canal

 

 

Identify these structures on human eye models or diagrams

lacrimal gland

conjunctiva

extrinsic eye muscles

sclera

cornea

choroid

iris

pupil

ciliary muscle

suspensory ligaments/zonule

lens

retina

optic disc

optic nerve

fovea centralis

vitreous humor

aqueous humor

anterior segment

posterior segment

 

 

Locate and identify these structures through dissection of a sheep or cow eyeball:

sclera

cornea

iris

pupil

optic nerve

lens

retina

optic disc

 

 

Locate these structures on models or diagrams of the ear, cochlea, and ossicles:

outer ear

pinna

external auditory canal

tympanic membrane

middle ear

ossicles:  malleus, incus, stapes

auditory (eustachian) tube

round window

oval window

inner ear

cochlea

cochlear duct

organ of Corti:  basilar membrane, tectorial membrane, hair cells

vestibule

semicircular canals and ducts

 

 

Endocrine System

 

Lecture topics
Functions of the endocrine system
Chemical classification of hormones

For the glands listed, identify the location, basic structure, hormones produced and general function of the hormones.

hypothalamus

pituitary gland

thyroid gland

parathyroid glands

adrenal gland (by general classes)

pancreatic islets

 

Anatomical and functional relationship of the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary *

Anatomical and functional relationship of hypothalamus and posterior pituitary. *

Role of tropic hormones in controlling other endocrine glands *

 

NOTE to instructor:  cover at least one endocrine disorder.

 

 

Lab topics

 

Identify these glands on model or diagrams:

pituitary (hypophysis)                       

anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)

posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis)

thyroid                                    

parathyroid

adrenal

adrenal cortex

adrenal medulla

pancreas

ovaries

testes

pineal body

 

           

 

Blood

 

Lecture topics

General functions of blood

Physical characteristics and volume

Plasma composition

Erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets (including granulocytes and agranulocytes)

Overview of hematopoiesis (minimal coverage)  

Overview of hemostasis (minimal coverage)

 

Lab topics

 

Identify these structure on a slide of human blood:

erythrocytes

leukocytes:  lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils

thrombocytes

 

Blood typing lab with discussion of blood groups (ABO and Rh)

 

 

Cardiovascular System                           

 

Lecture topics
Functions of the cardiovascular system

Anatomy of the heart

Pathway of Blood Flow through the Heart

Pacemakers and how this relates to the heart conduction system *

Myocardial action potentials and how this relates to cardiac contraction *

Explain the conduction system

Overview of EKG, cardiac cycle, heart sounds

Define cardiac output, stroke volume and heart rate. Explain the relationship between

            each.  Be able to discuss preload and afterload concepts.  Explain Starling’s Law

            of the Heart.  **         


Arteries, veins, and capillaries: Structure and function

Histology of blood vessels

Pulmonary Circulation:  major arteries and veins

Systemic Circulation:  major arteries and veins; circle of Willis, hepatic portal system

(emphasis upon the function of the hepatic portal system)

Blood pressure and how it is measured

Brief overview of vasomotor control and differential distribution of blood flow

 

Lab topics

 

Identify these structures on heart models or diagrams:

atria - right and left

ventricles - right and left

heart wall:  epicardium, myocardium, endocardium

fossa ovalis

interventricular septum

apex

bicuspid valve

tricuspid valve

aortic semilunar valve

pulmonary semilunar valve

aorta

pulmonary trunk

pulmonary veins

vena cavae:  superior and inferior

coronary arteries (right and left)

 

Locate and identify these structures through dissection of a sheep heart:

atria - right and left

ventricles - right and left

heart wall:  epicardium, myocardium, endocardium

interventricular septum

apex

 

Identify these arteries on torso models or diagrams and know the major areas of the body supplied by each artery:

aorta:  ascending, arch, thoracic, abdominal

brachiocephalic

common carotid, internal carotid, external carotid

subclavian

axillary

brachial

radial

celiac trunk

hepatic

splenic

left gastric

superior mesenteric

inferior mesenteric

renal

common iliac

external iliac

femoral

popliteal

anterior and posterior tibial

dorsalis pedis

 

Identify these veins on the circulatory and torso model or diagrams and know the major areas of the body drained by each vein:

superior vena cava

brachiocephalic

jugular, internal and external

subclavian

axillary

cephalic

brachial

basilic

median cubital

inferior vena cava

hepatic

hepatic portal

renal

common iliac

internal iliac

external iliac

femoral

popliteal

tibial:  anterior and posterior

greater saphenous

 

Identify the vessels of the pulmonary circuit on models or diagrams:

pulmonary arteries

pulmonary veins

 

Locate and identify these structures through dissection of a whole animal (cat, fetal pig, rat):

heart

aorta:  arch. abdominal

common carotid artery

anterior and posterior vena cava

 

 

Lymphatic System                                    

 

Lecture topics

Functions of the lymphatic system
Lymphatic vessels and concept of lymphatic drainage area
Production, function, and transport of lymph
Lymph nodes and other lymphoid organs: Structure and function

 

Lab topics

 

Identify these structures on models or diagrams:

tonsils:  pharyngeal, palatine, lingual

spleen

lymph node

 

Locate and identify these structures through dissection of a whole animal (cat, fetal pig, rat):

thymus

spleen

 

Respiratory System                                  

 

Lecture topics

Functions of the respiratory system

Organs of the respiratory system:  structure and functions of each

Cells of alveoli:  Type I, Type II, alveolar macrophages *

Relationship of pulmonary capillaries and alveoli *

Define cellular respiration
Gas exchange *                                

Gas transport *                                             
Overview of mechanics of breathing

Factors affecting pulmonary ventilation

Lung function measurements:  tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory                 reserve volume, vital capacity *                      

 

Lab topics

 

Identify these structures on models or diagrams:

external nares

nasal cavity

pharynx:  nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx

epiglottis

glottis

larynx

laryngeal cartilages:  thyroid, cricoid

trachea

bronchi:  primary, secondary, tertiary

bronchioles

alveoli

pleura:  visceral and parietal

left and right lungs

           

Locate and identify these structures through dissection of a whole animal (cat, fetal pig, rat):           

larynx

trachea

lungs

diaphragm

           

 

Digestive System

 

Lecture topics

Functions of the digestive system

GI tract: structure and functions of organs

Accessory organs: Structure and function

Digestive processes and where they occur

 

 

Lab topics

 

Identify these structures on models or diagrams:

oral cavity

salivary glands:  parotid, submandibular, sublingual

palate:  hard and soft

esophagus

stomach:  cardiac/gastroesophageal sphincter, pyloric sphincter, rugae

liver:  hepatic ducts (right, left and common),

gall bladder:  cystic duct

common bile duct

pancreas:  pancreatic duct

small intestine:  duodenum, jejunum, ileum

ileocecal valve

large intestine:  cecum, appendix, ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid, rectum

anus

peritoneum:    visceral, parietal, mesentery, greater omentum

           

Locate and identify these structures through dissection of a whole animal (cat, fetal pig, rat):

esophagus

stomach

small intestine

large intestine

greater omentum

pancreas

mesentery

liver

gall bladder if present in species dissected

 

 

Urinary System

 

Lecture topics

Functions of the urinary system
Organs of the urinary system: structure and functions of each
Structure of the nephron
Overview of urine production: filtration, reabsorption, secretion

Overview of regulation of water and electrolytes (Na, K, Cl) *

Connection between adequate cardiac output and proper renal function *

Renin-angiotensin mechanism and role of ACE *
Path of blood through the kidney


Lab topics

 

Identify these structures on models or diagrams:

kidney:  cortex, medulla, renal pyramids, pelvis, hilus, calyx

nephron:  glomerular (Bowman's) capsule, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle/loop of the nephron, distal convoluted tubule, collecting tubule

ureter

urinary bladder

urethra

blood supply:  renal arteries and veins, afferent arterioles, glomerular capillaries,

efferent arteriole, peritubular capillaries, vasa recta

 

Locate and identify these structures through dissection of a whole animal (cat, fetal pig, rat):

kidney

ureter

urinary bladder

 

 

 

Reproductive System

 

Lecture topics

Organs of the male reproductive system: structure and functions of each
Overview of hormonal regulation of male reproduction               

Organs of the female reproductive system: structure and functions of each
Overview of ovarian cycle including hormonal regulation            

Overview of uterine cycle                                                                

 

Lab topics

 

Identify these structures on models or diagrams:

 

male reproductive structures

testes* (singular = testis)

scrotum

epididymis*

ductus (vas) deferens*

ejaculatory duct

urethra

seminal vesicles

prostate

bulbourethral glands

penis

corpus spongiosum

glans penis

corpora cavernosa

prepuce

           

female reproductive structures

ovaries

oviducts (uterine tubes or fallopian tubes):  fimbriae

uterus:  fundus, body, cervix, endometrium, myometrium

vagina

labia majora

labia minora

vestibule

clitoris

 

 

Locate and identify these structures through dissection of a whole animal (cat, fetal pig, rat):

testes

ovaries

Information posted on this site


The information posted on this site addresses the syllabus information required by Texas House Bill 2504.  The syllabus handed out in class will contain more information than is noted here, including the class withdrawal policy, class participation requirements, scholastic dishonesty, and other important information.  The entire syllabus is posted on the Blackboard site for this course. And, the entire syllabus will be handed out in class.