Syllabus
Cellular and Molecular Biology

Cellular and Molecular Biology

BIOL-1406

Spring 2013
01/14/2013 - 05/12/2013

Course Information

Section 020
Lecture
MW 10:30AM - 11:50AM
NRG2 2245
David Froehlich
eohippus@austincc.edu
(512) 223.4894

Section 020
Laboratory
W 12:00PM - 2:40PM
NRG2 2226
David Froehlich
eohippus@austincc.edu
(512) 223.4894

Office Hours

  • M W
    9:00 - 10:30
    NRG 2215
  • M W
    4:30 - 5:00
    NRG 2215
  • T Th
    11:00 - 3:00
    NRG 2215
  • F
    10:00 - 3:00
    NRG 2215
    By Appointment

Course Requirements

The information posted on this site addresses the syllabus information required by Texas House Bill 2504.  The syllabus handed out in class is mirrored below.  The entire syllabus is posted on the Blackboard site for this site.

Biology 1406 (020), Cellular and Molecular Biology

Section 20528, Spring 2013

Lecture:                        M/W 10:30-11:50 AM NRG 2245, Lab: W 12:00-2:40 PM NRG 2226

Instructor:                        David Froehlich

Office:                                    NRG 2215

Office Hours:            M/W9-10:30, 4:30-5, T/H 11-3, F 10-3 by appt.

Telephone:            Office: 223-4894            Home: 833-6845 (No calls after 10:00PM)

Fax:                                    223-4641

Email:                                    eohippus@austincc.edu            Alternate: eohippus@mail.utexas.edu

Web Page:                        http://www2.austincc.edu/eohippus/

Course Description: General Biology course designed for science majors and students with a strong science background who desire an in-depth approach to biological topics.  An introduction to the physical and chemical organization of living organisms; cell structure, function, and metabolism; classical and molecular genetics; gene regulation; genetic engineering; molecular aspects of development; and reproduction.  BIOL 1406 and 1408 may not both be counted towards graduation.

 

Skills Requirements and Prerequisites:Reading, writing, and mathematics proficiency as determined by the COMPASS or ASSET test, or by the statewide THEA test, or by providing an official transcript from another college.  This class has no biology prerequisites, however, one year of high school chemistry or one semester of college chemistry; two years of high school algebra or MATD 0390.  Students who lack the prerequisites will be dropped from the course.

Required Texts and Materials:            

Campbell’s Biology (9th edition: Reece et al.) (gray binding)

Laboratory Manual for Biology 1406, Cellular and Molecular Biology (available online

                http://www.austincc.edu/biology/labmanuals/manualsindex.html)

ANSI Z87.1 Safety glasses or goggles

Closed-toed shoes

Bound lab notebook

Calculator that will handle simple statistics (mean, standard deviation, linear regression), alternatively, a computer with a spreadsheet program like Excel.

Instructional Methodology:This course is taught in the classroom as a lecture/lab combination. Students must attend both lecture and lab to get credit for this course.

Course Rationale:  Biology 1406 is a major’s level course for those who wish to pursue careers in biology, biotechnology, the health sciences and other related fields. There are four units that will be explored during the semester:

1) The chemistry of living organisms including the structure of atoms and molecules, pH, the macromolecules of living organisms, and energetics, enzymes and enzymatic pathways.

2) The structure and function of cells including the differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the eukaryotic organelles and biological membranes and intercellular communication.

3) Nucleic acids including mitosis and meiosis, DNA structure and replication, RNA transcription and translation and gene regulation

4) DNA technology, viruses, Mendelian genetics, molecular genetics, and Darwinian evolution.

Student Learning Outcomes:

Course-Level:

Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to:

·       Identify the 4 classes of macromolecules, their monomers, and their functions in cells.

·       Describe the structures and functions of cell organelles

·       Discuss energy transfer, enzyme function and the pathways of cellular respiration and photosynthesis.

·       Describe prokaryotic binary fission, the eukaryotic cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis.

·       Identify DNA structure and replication, transcription, translation and gene expression.

·       Solve problems in Mendelian genetics, including multiple alleles and X-linkage along with the Laws of Segregation and Independent Assortment

·       Describe modern biotechnological techniques and their impacts on society.

Program-Level:

As a required course for an Associate of Science in Biology, students will be able to:

·       Compare the structure and function of cells.

·       Describe the chemical basis of life including the importance of water, gases and macromolecules.

·       Explain energy movement, enzyme structure and function, respiration and photosynthesis.

·       Illustrate DNA structure and replication, protein synthesis, mutations and genetic analysis.

General Education:

As a Core Curriculum course, students completing this course will demonstrate competence in:

·       Gathering, analyzing, synthesizing, evaluating and applying information.

·       Applying mathematical, logical and scientific principles and methods.

Course Objectives:The ACC Biology Department has specified the content for this course in the departmental common course objectives. The departmental objectives are located at http://www.austincc.edu/biology/ccobjectives.  These list the material that all students are responsible for.  Additional material will be presented in this class as appropriate.

Course Evaluation/Grading:Grades will be based on class exams (4, the last will be comprehensive but with an emphasis on material covered since the third test), lab practicals (2), lab results and analysis/conclusions (best 11), lab notebook, and participation.  The lecture exams will consist of a mix of definition/identification, fill in the blank, multiple choice, and essay/long answer questions with the majority of the test based on the essay/long answer portion.  These tests will be administered in the testing center at NRG and must be completed by their respective deadlines.  The lab practicals will emphasize laboratory techniques and procedures and will be administered during lab time on week 9 and week 16.  Each lab or portion (with the exception of lab 10) has an introduction and a series of problems that will be completed before the day the lab is scheduled.  Each lab or portion also has a results and analysis/conclusions section that will be submitted in a typewritten form one week after completion of the lab for a grade.  A lab notebook will be kept and notes for each lab will be recorded.  This notebook will be checked by me after each lab and graded during the two practicals.

First three exams (15% each)                                      45%

Final exam (15% from last unit, 10% comprehensive)                    25%

Lab Practicals/Notebook                                            15%

Lab Homework, Class Participation and Clean Up                       15%

                                                            100%

Grading scale: A > 89.5%, B = 80%-89.5%, C = 70%-79.5%, D = 60-69.5%, F < 59.5%

Extra Credit:Minimal (< 5%) extra credit will be available on examinations.

Course Policies:

Late Work and Makeup Examinations:Late work will be docked 10% per Class Period.  There will be no make-up exams.  If you must miss an exam for some reason then you must contact me as soon as possible!  Exceptions will only be made for documented emergencies (e.g., life threatening illness).

Absences:Regular and punctual attendance at the lectures and labs is required.  Your course performance depends on your attendance (if you do not attend it is very difficult to learn the material).  You are responsible for all materials, activities, assignments, or announcements covered in class, regardless of your reason for being absent.  If you do miss a class, get lecture notes from someone in the class and get handouts and assignments from me.  I will not take roll (except to verify the roster), but you are responsible for your attendance.

Class Participation Expectations:This is a challenging course.  It is important that you not only know the material but understand it as well.  There are things that you can do to increase your chances of successfully completing this course.

Come to class.  This is the single most important predictive factor for success, those students who regularly come to class succeed at a much higher rate than those who don’t (this seems like a no-brainer but it is an important factor)

Study.  Students tend to underestimate the amount of material covered in this course as well as the depth of understanding that is required.  This is not high school; you cannot cram in one night.  It is necessary to keep up with the material (meaning to review it every day!!).  A good rule of thumb is that you should spend 2 hours preparing for each hour you spend in class.  Thus, you should expect to spend 10 hours a week on lecture and lab material in order to make a C.

Read your text.  All information on tests can be found in your text.  The text has been selected to match the information in the lectures and reading the text will only help you understand the material.

Use all the help available.  Your text contains a CD-ROM that has tutorials and links to content specific web sites.  Use them.  Come to office hours and come prepared with questions.  Bother your instructor with incessant relevant questions (not necessarily during lecture, sometimes it is important to get through the material, but I am happy to answer even slightly relevant questions after class, in office hours, by email, etc.)

I expect that each of you will come to class prepared and willing to work, this includes: reading the chapter before the lecture, participating in discussions, asking questions where appropriate, preparing the prelabs before the lab (not 5 minutes before the lab starts), participating fully in the lab exercises, and clean up at the end of lab, being courteous to me and your fellow students, and being willing to think.

Statement on Student Discipline: “Classroom behavior should support and enhance learning. Behavior that disrupts the learning process will be dealt with appropriately, which may include having the student leave class for the rest of that day. In serious cases, disruptive behavior may lead to a student being withdrawn from the class. ACC's policy on student discipline can be found on the ACC website at http://www.austincc.edu/current/needtoknow/.”

Withdrawal Policy:It is the responsibility of each student to ensure that his or her name is removed from the roll should he or she decide to withdraw from the class. I will not withdraw you!  You do not need my permission to withdraw but please feel free to discuss any problems you have at any time (the earlier the better). The last day to withdraw is April 22.  If a student decides to withdraw, he or she should also verify that the withdrawal is submitted before the Final Withdrawal Date. The student is also strongly encouraged to retain their copy of the withdrawal form for their records.
Students who enroll for the third or subsequent time in a course taken since Fall 2002, may be charged a higher tuition rate for that course.
State law permits students to withdraw from no more than six courses during their entire undergraduate career at Texas public colleges or universities. With certain exceptions, all course withdrawals automatically count towards this limit. Details regarding this policy can be found in the ACC college catalog.  The last day to withdraw without a W appearing on your transcript is February 2 (this is because students who exit the course before the Official Reporting Date are considered to have “dropped” the course. Dropped courses are not considered withdrawals and are not posted on the student transcript).

Reinstatement:  Since I do not withdraw you, I will not reinstate you.

Incomplete Policy:Incompletes are very uncommon.  No incomplete will be given without a compelling documented reason (emergency etc.) and completion of at least 1/2 of the course work with a grade of C or higher.  Furthermore, I will only give an incomplete if the emergency occurs after the withdrawal deadline or if withdrawal would impose a significant undue burden on the student (e.g., student visa, financial aid etc.). An incomplete grade cannot be carried beyond the established date in the following semester. The completion date is determined by the instructor but may not be later than the final deadline for withdrawal in the subsequent semester.

Statement on Student Discipline: “Classroom behavior should support and enhance learning. Behavior that disrupts the learning process will be dealt with appropriately, which may include having the student leave class for the rest of that day. In serious cases, disruptive behavior may lead to a student being withdrawn from the class. ACC's policy on student discipline can be found on the ACC website at http://www.austincc.edu/current/needtoknow/.”

Lab Policies: Lab will be conducted as a discovery process both individually and in groups.  You will be expected to have read the lab before attendance and have prepared your lab book to complete the activities in lab.  The lab book should have a table of contents, page numbers, and an outline of each lab prepared before the lab is completed.  This outline (written in ink) should have all calculations, tables, and information to allow you to complete the lab in an organized manner.  Materials will be provided in class and you will be expected to use these materials to complete the lab activities.  Lab materials will be handled and disposed of in a manner that is safe and prescribed by the lab procedures and your instructor.  You will gather the appropriate data during the lab and write these down in your lab book.  These data will allow you to complete the results and analysis at the end of each lab.  The labs will be graded based on the completed results and analysis section (at the end of each lab).  The lab reports will be due at the beginning of the next weeks lab.

Lab Safety: Austin Community College is committed to providing a safe and healthy environment for study and work. You are expected to learn and comply with ACC environmental, health and safety procedures and agree to follow ACC safety policies. Additional information on these can be found at http://www.austincc.edu/ehs. Because some health and safety circumstances are beyond our control, we ask that you become familiar with the Emergency Procedures poster and Campus Safety Plan map in each classroom. Additional information about emergency procedures and how to sign up for ACC Emergency Alerts to be notified in the event of a serious emergency can be found at http://www.austincc.edu/emergency/.

Please note, you are expected to conduct yourself professionally with respect and courtesy to all. Anyone who thoughtlessly or intentionally jeopardizes the health or safety of another individual will be dismissed from the day’s activity, may be withdrawn from the class, and/or barred from attending future activities.

You will receive safety training in your lab room prior to working with any hazards such as chemicals or microbes. If you miss in-class safety training and do not make it up as scheduled by your instructor you will be dropped from the class and not reinstated. If you show up on lab days without appropriate safety eyewear and shoes you will not be able to participate in lab or remain in the room during class.

Student Injury Insurance: Students enrolled in lab and field courses are covered by student insurance if they are injured as a result of the lab or field activity. The instructor will provide the student with the necessary forms and complete an injury report for the office of Environment Health, Safety and Insurance. There is a small deductible.

Official Biology Department Policy Concerning Student Use of Organisms in the Classroom and Laboratory: Most ACC biology classes, particularly those with laboratory components, use actual organisms during instruction in addition to images and models. ACC students generally are preparing for real-world careers requiring workers with hands-on experience. These careers include health care, veterinary work, horticultural and agricultural work. Other students plan to transfer to four-year colleges and will be participating in biological research where hands-on experience is equally important.  Organisms used at ACC are fundamental in biology instruction and they are utilized to teach specific skills and knowledge. Their condition and usage varies from course to course. Students will be expected to actively participate in these activities. Students with particular concerns in this matter should consult with their instructor and/or departmental officials before enrolling in a course so that they can know what will be required of them.  Some organisms are observed alive while others are dead and preserved in various ways. Student manipulation of organisms ranges from culturing living organisms to dissecting preserved ones. Some examples include, but are not limited to: bacterial culturing for microbiology courses; cat, pig or rat dissection for anatomy courses; skeleton and pelt examination for field biology; and use of frogs in physiology experiments.

 

ACC Academic Policies and Services

Statement on Scholastic Dishonesty

A student attending ACC assumes responsibility for conduct compatible with the mission of the college as an educational institution. Students have the responsibility to submit coursework that is the result of their own thought, research, or self-expression. Students must follow all instructions given by faculty or designated college representatives when taking examinations, placement assessments, tests, quizzes, and evaluations. Actions constituting scholastic dishonesty include, but are not limited to, plagiarism, cheating, fabrication, collusion, and falsifying documents. Penalties for scholastic dishonesty will depend upon the nature of the violation and may range from lowering a grade on one assignment to an “F” in the course and/or expulsion from the college. See the Student Standards of Conduct and Disciplinary Process and other policies at http://www.austincc.edu/current/needtoknow

Student Rights and Responsibilities
Students at the college have the rights accorded by the U.S. Constitution to freedom of speech, peaceful assembly, petition, and association. These rights carry with them the responsibility to accord the same rights to others in the college community and not to interfere with or disrupt the educational process. Opportunity for students to examine and question pertinent data and assumptions of a given discipline, guided by the evidence of scholarly research, is appropriate in a learning environment. This concept is accompanied by an equally demanding concept of responsibility on the part of the student. As willing partners in learning, students must comply with college rules and procedures.

Statement on Students with Disabilities

Each ACC campus offers support services for students with documented disabilities. Students with disabilities who need classroom, academic or other accommodations must request them through the Office for Students with Disabilities (OSD). Students are encouraged to request accommodations when they register for courses or at least three weeks before the start of the semester, otherwise the provision of accommodations may be delayed.
Students who have received approval for accommodations from OSD for this course must provide the instructor with the ‘Notice of Approved Accommodations’ from OSD before accommodations will be provided. Arrangements for academic accommodations can only be made after the instructor receives the ‘Notice of Approved Accommodations’ from the student.
Students with approved accommodations are encouraged to submit the ‘Notice of Approved Accommodations’ to the instructor at the beginning of the semester because a reasonable amount of time may be needed to prepare and arrange for the accommodations. Additional information about the Office for Students with Disabilities is available at http://www.austincc.edu/support/osd/

Use of ACC Email
All College e-mail communication to students will be sent solely to the student’s ACCmail account, with the expectation that such communications will be read in a timely fashion. ACC will send important information and will notify you of any college related emergencies using this account. Students should only expect to receive email communication from their instructor using this account. Likewise, students should use their ACCmail account when communicating with instructors and staff. Instructions for activating an ACCmail account can be found at http://www.austincc.edu/accmail/index.php.

Testing Center Policy

Under certain circumstances, an instructor may have students take an examination in a testing center. Students using the Academic Testing Center must govern themselves according to the Student Guide for Use of ACC Testing Centers and should read the entire guide before going to take the exam.
To request an exam, one must have:
ACC Photo ID
• Course Abbreviation (e.g., ENGL)
• Course Number (e.g.,1301)
• Course Synonym (e.g., 10123)
• Course Section (e.g., 005)
• Instructor's Name

Do NOT bring cell phones to the Testing Center. Having your cell phone in the testing room, regardless of whether it is on or off, will revoke your testing privileges for the remainder of the semester. ACC Testing Center policies can be found at http://www.austincc.edu/testctr/

Student And Instructional Services
ACC strives to provide exemplary support to its students and offers a broad variety of opportunities and services. Information on these services and support systems is available at: http://www.austincc.edu/s4/
Links to many student services and other information can be found at: http://www.austincc.edu/current/
ACC Learning Labs provide free tutoring services to all ACC students currently enrolled in the course to be tutored. The tutor schedule for each Learning Lab may be found at:
http://www.autincc.edu/tutor/students/tutoring.php
For help setting up your ACCeID, ACC Gmail, or ACC Blackboard, see a Learning Lab Technician at any ACC Learning Lab.

Readings

Campbell’s Biology (9th edition: Reece et al.) (gray binding) - You may use a previous edition, however the information may have changed from previous editions to the current edition, and page numbers and figures will almost certainly have changed.  You are responsible for the information contained in the most recent edition.

Laboratory Manual for Biology 1406, Cellular and Molecular Biology (available online

                http://www.austincc.edu/biology/labmanuals/manualsindex.html)

Course Subjects

Common Course Topics

Biology 1406: Cell and Molecular Biology

1. Introduction to biology

--the scientific study of organisms

--properties of life

--assumptions, methods and limitations of science

--underlying themes of biology

--evolution as a unifying concept

2. Basic chemistry and biochemistry

            --structure of atoms and molecules

            --chemical bonds and interactions

            --acids and bases and pH

            --chemical reactions and functional groups

            --properties of water and its importance to living systems

            --structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids, nucleotide-based compounds and proteins

3. Introduction to cell structure and function

            --cell theory

            --methods of studying cells

            --structures and functions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

4. Membranes and cell transport

            --structures and functions of cell membranes

            --membrane transport of large and small molecules

            --osmosis and diffusion

5. Principles of cell metabolism

            --chemical reactions and energy

            --role of ATP in coupled chemical reactions

            --function of catalysts

            --how enzymes work, regulation of enzyme activity, factors that affect enzyme activity

            --biochemical pathways, substrates, products and intermediate products

6. Photosynthesis

            --structure and function of chloroplasts

            --light-dependent reactions, cyclic and non-cyclic

            --light-independent reactions

7. Respiration and fermentation

            --glycolysis

            --citric acid cycle

            --electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation

            --aerobic versus anaerobic processes

            --fermentation

8. Cell cycles

            --cell cycle

            --binary fission in prokaryotes

--process and function of meiosis and mitosis

--cytokinesis

9. Patterns of inheritance

            --genetic terms

            --genotypic and phenotypic variation

            --dominant and recessive traits

            --mendelian model of inheritance

            --chromosomal aberrations

10. DNA structure and chromosome

            --structure of nucleotides and the DNA double helix

            --replication of DNA

            --DNA repair mechanisms

            --mutations

11. Protein synthesis

            --genetic code

            --RNA structure, transcription and processing

            --translation: protein syntheses, processing and distribution

12. Gene regulation

­--gene regulation in prokaryotes (e.g. lac operon)

            --gene regulation strategies in eukaryotes

13. Viruses

            --structure and replication of viruses

14. Genetic manipulation

            --plasmid and virus vectors

            --recombinant DNA and cloning techniques

            --PCR

            --applications of biotechnology

Tentative schedule

 

Date            Subject            Chapter

January 14            Introduction, water, pH, Carbon            1-4           

January 16              

January 23            Simple organic chemistry and            4-5

January 28                        macromolecules                       

January 30            Structure and function of            5

February 4                        macromolecules                       

February 6            Tour of a cell            7           

February 11            Exam I deadline (Ch.1 - 5)                       

February 13            Membrane structure and function            8

February 18                                               

February 20            Metabolism, cellular respiration            6, 9

February 25                                               

February 27            Cellular respiration, photosynthesis            9, 10           

March 4                                               

March 6            Cell communication            11

March 18                                   

March 20            Exam II deadline (Ch. 6-10)

March 25            Mitosis, meiosis            12, 13           

March 27

April 1            Mendel, Chromosomal basis of            14, 15           

April 3                        inheritance

April 8            DNA, molecular basis of inheritance            16           

April 10                       

April 15            Gene to protein            17                       

April 17            Exam III deadline (Ch. 11-16)

April 22                                               

April 24            Organization of the genome            18, 19

April 29                                               

May 1            DNA technology            20

May 6

May 8            Exam IV (in class) (Ch. 17-20)

Student Learning Outcomes/Learning Objectives

Student Learning Outcomes:

Course-Level:

Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to:

·       Identify the 4 classes of macromolecules, their monomers, and their functions in cells.

·       Describe the structures and functions of cell organelles

·       Discuss energy transfer, enzyme function and the pathways of cellular respiration and photosynthesis.

·       Describe prokaryotic binary fission, the eukaryotic cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis.

·       Identify DNA structure and replication, transcription, translation and gene expression.

·       Solve problems in Mendelian genetics, including multiple alleles and X-linkage along with the Laws of Segregation and Independent Assortment

·       Describe modern biotechnological techniques and their impacts on society.

Program-Level:

As a required course for an Associate of Science in Biology, students will be able to:

·       Compare the structure and function of cells.

·       Describe the chemical basis of life including the importance of water, gases and macromolecules.

·       Explain energy movement, enzyme structure and function, respiration and photosynthesis.

·       Illustrate DNA structure and replication, protein synthesis, mutations and genetic analysis.

General Education:

As a Core Curriculum course, students completing this course will demonstrate competence in:

·       Gathering, analyzing, synthesizing, evaluating and applying information.

·       Applying mathematical, logical and scientific principles and methods.

BIOL 1406 Common Course Objectives

By the end of the course, students should be able to:

Introduction to Biology

1.  Discuss scientific processes and how they are used in studying biology.

2.  Distinguish between living organisms and nonliving matter.

3.  Identify some limitations of science.

4.  Discuss some underlying themes of biology (e.g. hierarchy, homeostasis, emergent properties)

5.  Explain evolution and natural selection, they are unifying concepts in biology.

Basic Chemistry and Biochemistry

1. Describe the basic structure of atoms.

2. Interpret chemical and structural formulas.

3.  Describe ionic and covalent bonds.

4.  Discuss hydrogen bonds and non-polar interactions, and their importance for living organisms.

5.  Identify some characteristics of carbon that allow it to play such an important role in the chemistry of life.

6. Explain isomers in biology.

7. Describe properties of water and explain their importance to living systems.

8. Explain properties of acids, bases and salts.

9. Understand pH.

9. Explain roles buffers play in living organisms.

10. Identify functional groups of biological molecules.

11. Describe structures and functions of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleotide-based compounds.

12. Describe four levels of protein structure and how they relate to protein activity.

Introduction to Cell Structure and Function

1. Describe the cell theory.

2. Explain some factors that limit cell size.

3. Describe the typical prokaryotic cell (e.g. size, plasma membrane, cell wall, cytoplasm, ribosomes, nucleoid and flagella.)

4. Describe the typical eukaryotic cell and explain the structure and function of:

nucleus and nucleolus, endomembrane system, ribosomes, mitochondria, plastids, the cytoskeleton and cilia, flagella and centrioles.

5. Compare and contrast the characteristics of prokaryotes, eukaryotes and viruses.

6. Discuss diversity among eukaryotic cell types.

Membranes and Cell Transport

1. Describe the fluid mosaic model of membrane structure and explain the structure and functions of component molecules.

2. Compare and contrast diffusion, osmosis and dialysis.

3. Explain cell transport of large and small molecules across biological membranes.

4. Discuss cell signaling mechanisms including the role of cAMP.

Principles of Cell Metabolism

1. Distinguish between potential and kinetic energy.

2. Explain how the first and second laws of thermodynamics apply to living organisms.

3. Explain what a chemical reaction is and describe changes that take place during a chemical reaction.

4. Distinguish between endergonic and exergonic reactions and explain how they are coupled in living organisms.  Describe the roles of ATP and ADP in the coupling of chemical reactions.

5. Describe enzyme structure, how enzymes work, regulation of enzyme activity (e.g. cofactors and inhibitors) and factors that affect enzyme activity.

6. Describe biochemical pathways, substrates, products and intermediate products.

Photosynthesis

1. Explain the relationship between structure and function of chloroplasts

2. Describe the light-dependent reactions.

3. Describe light-independent reactions.

4. Summarize the process of photosynthesis and trace movement of CO2 and H2O through the process.

Respiration and Fermentation

1. Describe the process of glycolysis and fates of pyruvate.

2. Explain relationships between structure and function of mitochondria.

3. Describe citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.

4. Summarize the process of aerobic respiration. Trace the fate of glucose and the role of O2 in the process.

5. Discuss energy capture and release under anaerobic conditions (e.g. alcohol and lactic acid production.)

6. Compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic processes.

7. Explain how other biomolecules can enter these biochemical pathways.

Cell Cycles

1. Describe binary fission in prokaryotic cells.

2. Discuss eukaryotic cell cycles and describe the events of interphase.

3. Describe mitosis.

4. Describe cytokinesis and distinguish between mitosis and cytokinesis.  Also distinguish between the cytokinesis of plant and animal cells.

5. Describe meiosis I and II

6. Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis.

Patterns of Inheritance

1. Define and be able to use the following terms correctly: genotype, phenotype, homozygous, heterozygous, alleles and genes.

2. Discuss the Mendelian model of inheritance.

3. Describe patterns of inheritance (e.g. sex linkage, dominant, recessive, codominant and incomplete dominant.)

4. Describe genotypic and phenotypic variation.

5. Discuss chromosomal variations in humans.

DNA Structure and Chromosomes

1. Describe the structure of nucleotides.

2. Describe the DNA molecule.

3. Describe DNA replication, including the principle steps and enzymes involved.

4. Discuss the structure of eukaryotic and prokaryotic chromosomes.

5. Discuss DNA repair mechanisms.

6. Define mutation and give examples (e.g. point mutations, chromosome changes.)

Protein Synthesis

1. Describe the structure of RNA.

2. Compare and contrast RNA and DNA.

3. Describe transcription, including the principle steps and enzymes involved.

4. Describe posttranscriptional modifications of mRNA in eukaryotic cells.

5. In detail, describe the process of translation, identifying the principles steps.

6. Use base pairing rules to replicate a segment of DNA, transcribe it and match the anticodon of tRNA to mRNA.  Translate a segment of mRNA using a genetic table.

7. Explain how various types of mutations can alter the structure of a polypeptide chain.

8.  Describe protein processing and distribution.

Gene Regulation

1. Describe processes of gene regulation in prokaryotic cells (e.g. operon system.)

2. Describe gene regulation strategies in eukaryotic cells.

Viruses

1. Describe the structure of viruses and how they are replicated.

Genetic Manipulation

1. Compare artificial genetic recombination to natural processes.

2. Describe plasmid and virus vectors.

3. Discuss recombinant DNA and cloning techniques.

4. Describe PCR and its utility.

5. Discuss applications of biotechnology (e.g. RFLPs, VNTR, DNA fingerprinting)

Laboratory Objectives

By the end of the course students should be able to:

Measuring weight and volume

1. Identify basic laboratory items

2. Use metric units and measuring devices

3. Perform statistical calculations of mean, percent error and standard deviation

Solutions

1. Prepare solutions of given molarity and volume

2. Prepare parallel and serial dilution series

pH

  1. Use the pH meter correctly and adjust the pH of solutions
  2. Prepare buffers and determine buffering range

Microscopes

  1. Identify the parts of the brightfield microscope and demonstrate its use and care
  2. Prepare wet mounts
  3. Measure specimens viewed with the brightfield microscope

Cell Transport

  1. Describe factors that affect the direction and speed of molecular movement
  2. Compare and contrast simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis and dialysis
  3. Describe the factors that affect the rate and direction of cell transport
  4. Use chemical indicators
  5. Compare and contrast isotonic, hypotonic and hypertonic solutions
  6. Describe the role of the cell wall in plants

Enzymes

  1. Use spectrophotometers
  2. Demonstrate some factors that affect enzyme activity
  3. Graph data
  4. Statistically analyze data

Thin Layer Chromatography

  1. Separate molecules using TLC
  2. Use a scanning spectrophotometer to make an absorption spectrum

Protein Purification

  1. Isolate a specific protein from a biological sample
  2. Use differential solubility and centrifugation
  3. Use ultrafiltration
  4. Use size exclusion column chromatography
  5. Determine protein concentration using a standard curve
  6. Perform SDS-PAGE electrophoresis
  7. Analyze an SDS-PAGE gel to determine molecular weights of isolated proteins

DNA

  1. Perform recombinant DNA techniques
  2. Isolate DNA from biological samples
  3. Characterize isolated DNA using agarose gel electrophoresis
  4. Perform basic microbiological techniques such as sterile plating and isolation of single colonies
  5. Graph and analyze agarose gel data